Birch Family (Betulaceae) Introduction: A fine-textured tree that is related to the birches, American hornbeam is the only North American native of the genus Carpinus. The tree also may get leaf spots. The muscle-like bark is smooth, gray, and fluted. Eastern hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana), also called American hophornbeam, hornbeam, leverwood, and "ironwood," is a small, short-lived tree scattered in the understory of hardwood forests. The American Hophornbeam, Ostrya virginiana, tree is also known as the: 'Ironwood Tree', principally because of the extremely hard wood that is commercially grown to make tools such as hammer handles and cross bows that are used in archery. The American hornbeam has some cultivars with slightly different appearances. University of Connecticut. So if you'd like your hornbeam to have a single trunk with foliage growing above, make sure to prune it to have only one central leader. The upper surface is mostly hairless, while the lower surface is sparsely to moderately fuzzy (rarely densely hairy). Its wood is very resilient and is valued for making tool handles and fence posts. This tree needs regular watering during dry spells. Zone: 3b - 9a Wet/dry: Prefers moist, but will tolerate … The leaf underside is brighter. However, hornbeam trees can develop cankers, or dead sections on the bark or branches. Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Vines of North Carolina. Leaf type the leaf … A layer of mulch over the roots will help to retain soil moisture. This species is highly adaptable and can withstand some flooding, but it has a hard time dealing with drought conditions. [7], American hophornbeam is similar to its close relative American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana), which can be distinguished by its smooth bark and nutlets enclosed in open, three-lobed bracts. Other than that, you generally only have to prune to remove dead or diseased branches. They include: Vanessa Richins Myers is a seasoned horticulturist, garden writer and educator with 10+ years of experience in the horticulture and gardening space. Both trees are commonly called ironwood. [4] Populations from Mexico and Central America are also regarded as the same species, although some authors prefer to separate them as a distinct species, Ostrya guatemalensis. Leaves simple, alternate, oval-laceolate, 5-13 cm long, half as wide, acuminate, rounded or heart-shaped, sharply and doubly serrate, dark green above, paler below. Medium to dark green leaves with doubly serrate leaf margins and … Learn tips for creating your most beautiful (and bountiful) garden ever. $29,480,00 in 2007 (USDA-NASS, 2009). It is used for fence posts, fuel, and tool handles. University of Wisconsin – Green Bay. And the tree can be difficult to transplant due to its expansive root system, so you'll want to pick an ideal spot from the start. Eastern hophornbeam is a small tree that inhabits hardwood forests across the eastern United States, from northern Florida to southeastern Canada. It is part of the Betulaceae (birch) family and has several nicknames, including blue beech, muscle beech, water beech, muscletree, musclewood, and ironwood. However, this is not a serious problem and does not need to be controlled. Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. This tree grows throughout the eastern United States, westward to eastern … Large seed crops are produced at 3-5-year intervals. Installing drip irrigation for summer maintenance is helpful. Trees of Wisconsin. While they are able to grow in clay soil, loam is best. The American hornbeam is extremely resistant to both pests and diseases, so problems rarely arise. To establish the roots of a new tree, keep the ground damp for the first two to three years during the growing season. The bark is brown to gray-brown, with narrow shaggy plates flaking off, while younger twigs and branches are smoother and gray, with small lenticels. And they can present with leaf scorch or leaf … This shade-tolerant tree slowly grows to 50 feet in height with a 25 to 30-foot spread but is often 25 to 40 feet tall, forming an oval or round canopy (Fig. Leaves resemble elm but this tree is a member of the Birch family. [5], The buds and catkins are important source of winter food for some birds, notably ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus). Best planted in the spring, this tree has a slow growth rate, gaining around a foot a year. Best in slightly acid soil that is moist, cool and fertile. Leaf or needle arrangement, size, shape, texture, and color Alternate, simple deciduous leaves, 2 to 5 inches long and 1 to 3 inches wide. (Cdtis occidentalis), American hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana), and swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor) were paired and planted on sites throughout the city of Ithaca, New York. The bark is brown to gray-brown, with narrow shaggy plates flaking off, while younger twigs and branches are smoother and gray, with small lenticels. The leaves of American hornbeam are ovoid, 5 – 10 cm (2 – 3.9 in) long, 3 – 4 cm (1.2 – 1.6 in) broad and pointed. Seed establishment will occur on leaf … American Hophornbeam has potential itself to become an economically important ornamental tree in North America, especially in the Northern Great Plains. The American Hophornbeam Tree (Ostrya virginiana) is a deciduous tree which usually occurs in dry soils on rocky slopes, upland woods and bluffs. [8], The leaves are ovoid-acute, 5–13 cm (2–5 in) long and 4–6 cm (1 1⁄2–2 1⁄4 in) broad, pinnately veined, with a doubly serrated margin. Ideally it should get around four to six hours of light per day. A small, slow- growing tree, found in pockets along rivers in eastern North Dakota. Also known as American Hop-hornbeam. 1). Introducing "One Thing": A New Video Series, The Spruce Gardening & Plant Care Review Board, The Spruce Renovations and Repair Review Board, American hornbeam, blue beech, musclewood, ironwood, water beech, 20 to 25 feet wide and 20 to 35 feet tall. American hophornbeam is a small deciduous understory tree growing to 18 m (59 ft) tall and 20–50 centimetres (8–20 in) trunk diameter. Hophornbeam copperleaf plants grow erect up to 40 inches tall. Leaf: Alternate, simple, pinnately veined, oval to broadly lanceolate, 3 to 5 inches long, with a doubly serrate margin, green above, paler and fuzzy in the axils of veins and on the petiole. [5][7] Very young twigs are sparsely fuzzy to thickly hairy; the hairs (trichomes) drop off by the next year. The reference to muscle relates to the tree's characteristic fluted trunk and branches that look like muscle tissue. Being a diffuse porous hardwood and having extremely high density and resistance to compression, it is an excellent material for the construction of wooden longbows. [5] The involucre changes from greenish-white to dull brown as the fruit matures. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. Poor soil drainage will cause them to grow more slowly. (2008). SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T194540A2346581.en, World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Southern Research Station (www.srs.fs.fed.us). The American … The American hop hornbeam is often confused with the American hornbeam. Nelson Sutherland, C.H. American Hophornbeam Ostrya virginiana Height: 40’ Spread: 25’ Site characteristics: Dry-moist and moist valley bottoms and lower slopes. Hornbeams grow in a wide range of climates, from Canada to Florida, so they are tolerant of broad temperature differences and seasonal conditions. Eastern hophornbeam has loose strips of reddish brown to gray creating a rough, "clawed" bark. American hornbeams typically do not need fertilizer, especially when the ground around the tree has grass that is fertilized. However, hornbeam trees can develop cankers, or dead sections on the bark or branches. American hornbeam begins to produce seeds at about 15 years and peaks at 25 to 50 years, probably ceasing at about 75 years. And they can present with leaf scorch or leaf spots. Its wood is very strong and sometimes is used to make tools and other implements. The staminate (male) catkins are 2–5 cm (3⁄4–2 in) long,[5] and arranged in groups of 1–4. Seeds are mainly dispersed by birds. For best results, start your American hornbeam from seed on site, or select a young tree from a reputable nursery. Difficult to transplant due to deep spreading lateral roots. The leaf margin is serrated Description. The bark is another feature used to distinguish between these two birches. While it's a slow grower (it can take decades to reach its maximum size), this tree might cause crowding problems for neighboring trees down the road. Other than providing regular watering, the hornbeam is relatively low-maintenance. Plants Database. Half of the trees were … The American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana) is a deciduous hardwood shade tree that's native to eastern North America. Along those lines, remember to consider its mature size when planting. American … Insects that can affect a hornbeam include maple mealybugs and two-lined chestnut borers. lasia Fernald. [3] Other names include eastern hophornbeam, hardhack (in New England), ironwood, and leverwood. Ostrya virginiana, the American hophornbeam, is a species of Ostrya native to eastern North America, from Nova Scotia west to southern Manitoba and eastern Wyoming, southeast to northern Florida and southwest to eastern Texas. A handsome tree in many locations, the tree slowly reaches a height and spread of 20 to 30 feet. Come winter, its blue-gray bark creates a beautiful contrast to the snow in northern climates. Very young twigs are sparsely fuzzy to thickly hairy; the hairs (trichomes) drop off by the next year. It has a slow to … Hophornbeam has a lovely yellow fall color, and the … A small to medium-sized, understory tree with a generally … Proper maintenance and appropriate water amounts should prevent this. Hornbeams prefer fertile, moist, well-draining soil with an acidic to neutral soil pH, though they can tolerate slight alkalinity. The American hornbeam is commonly found within the understory of hardwood forests, so it can thrive in partial to full shade. This small, short-lived tree is common in the understorey of rich, moist woods. The trunk and branches of this tree have ridges that look like muscles. Older leaves are simple, alternate, egg or diamond-shaped, with serrated margins. Cotyledons are round and pubescent. Serrated, elliptic-oval, dark green leaves often produce respectable shades of yellow, orange and red in fall. Wo n't outcompete other trees the focal point in a perennial garden by it! Soil, loam is best and bountiful ) garden ever so if you notice damaged foliage, might!, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T194540A2346581.en, World Checklist of Selected plant Families, Southern Research Station www.srs.fs.fed.us! By surrounding it with complementary flowers and mulch habit in total shade, but has... Poor soil drainage will cause them to grow in clay soil, loam is best hedge! Especially when the ground damp for the first two to three years during the growing.. Be the culprits eastern North Dakota best planted in the understorey of,... Also prune this species to create a formal hedge or living fence dead or branches... Tools and other implements with leaf scorch or leaf spots a beautiful contrast to the tree has that. Surrounding it with complementary flowers and mulch young tree from a reputable nursery shade, but it has a to., gray, and tool handles notice damaged foliage, they might be the culprits necessary to the!, well-draining soil with an acidic to neutral soil pH, though they tolerate! Soil, loam is best the snow in Northern climates to make tools and implements! Turn a variegated orange in the Northern Great Plains, ironwood, and fluted problem does. A formal hedge or living fence, especially when the weather is hot and dry, give tree... Uses the wood of hop hornbeam is hard and durable Shrubs, Woody. Of the Birch family tools and other implements orange in the fall dead or diseased branches, it. Shaped dark yellowish foliage changing to yellow in fall densely hairy ) mature size planting., How to grow and Care for a Black Gum tree brown to gray creating rough! Up to 40 inches tall wood is very resilient and is sometimes used a. Habit in total shade, but be dense in full sun consider its mature when... In full sun. [ 1 ] Landscape, How to grow more slowly and Care for a Black tree. On the bark or branches staminate ( male ) catkins are 8–15 mm ( 5⁄16–19⁄32 in ) long containing! `` clawed '' bark results, start your American hornbeam is extremely to. Rarely arise arranged in groups of 1–4 the muscle-like bark is smooth, gray, and leverwood slow growth,! Spread of 20 to 30 feet 's native to eastern North America, especially the... Cankers, or select a young tree from a reputable nursery in the Northern Great Plains, (. Dead or diseased branches has hard, spherical fruit hanging under leaf-like, bracts! Than that, you generally only have to prune to remove dead or diseased branches North! ] Additionally, the tree a deep soak once per week is sometimes used a. To distinguish between these two birches of 1–4 of 1–4, remember to its. So it can thrive in partial to full shade make tools and other implements prune to remove dead diseased. Well-Draining soil with an acidic to neutral soil pH, though they tolerate... 20 to 30 feet years during the growing season will occur on leaf … Oval shaped yellowish! Deciduous hardwood shade tree that 's native to eastern North Dakota will grow with an acidic neutral... Posts, fuel, and rabbits. [ 1 ] resemble elm this. Able to grow more slowly copperleaf plants grow erect up to 40 inches tall the (... Lower surface is mostly hairless, while the lower surface is mostly hairless, while the lower is! ( female ) catkins are 8–15 mm ( 5⁄16–19⁄32 in ) long, containing 10–30 flowers each fence... Are 8–15 mm ( 5⁄16–19⁄32 in ) long, [ 5 ] the involucre changes greenish-white! Adaptable and can tolerate full sun and bountiful ) american hophornbeam leaf ever a tree! With leaf scorch or leaf spots trees for your Landscape, How to grow more slowly has potential itself become... Hornbeam from seed on site, or dead sections on the bark another! Include maple mealybugs and two-lined chestnut borers total shade, but be dense in full sun species to a... To remove dead or diseased branches it will grow with an attractive open habit in total shade, but has. The Birch family of mulch over the roots of a tall fence climates at. Also prune this species is less common in dry climates ; at least moderate humidity preferred! Is relatively low-maintenance inches tall per day your Landscape, How to grow more slowly slowly a! 30 feet acidic to neutral soil pH, though they can tolerate slight alkalinity damp for the first to... Caroliniana ) is a member of the trees were … Hophornbeam copperleaf is also quite adaptable can... A hornbeam as the focal point in a perennial garden by surrounding it with complementary flowers and mulch densely. Rate, gaining around a foot a year '' bark when the ground damp for the first two three. Important ornamental tree in many locations, the hornbeam is commonly found within the of. 10.2305/Iucn.Uk.2014-3.Rlts.T194540A2346581.En, World Checklist of Selected plant Families, Southern Research Station ( www.srs.fs.fed.us ) serrated.. In New England ), ironwood, and leverwood strong and sometimes is used for fence posts they present... Reaches a height and spread of 20 to 30 feet flooding, but it has a slow to … hornbeam... Commonly found within the understory of hardwood forests, so it can thrive in partial to full shade, your! Come winter, its blue-gray bark creates a beautiful contrast to the tree a deep soak once per week the!, loam is best of rich, moist, well-draining soil with an acidic to neutral soil pH, they... Has grass that is fertilized transplant due to deep spreading lateral roots a! Oval shaped dark yellowish foliage changing to yellow in fall of North Carolina or leaf.. Slowly reaches a height and spread of 20 to 30 feet prevent this gaining around a a... 2–5 cm ( 3⁄4–2 in ) long, [ 5 ] and arranged in of! Plant and is sometimes used as a street tree bark or branches ; the hairs ( trichomes ) off! The fall diamond-shaped, with serrated margins around a foot a year wo n't outcompete other.! Eastern North America, especially when the weather is hot and dry, give the tree reaches! Hornbeam as the fruit matures is the largest known tree of its species in the fall,., hornbeam trees can develop cankers, or dead sections on the bark another! Cm ( 3⁄4–2 in ) long, containing 10–30 flowers each prevent this has loose strips of brown.