1. Thus emphasis is laid on the external nature. In support of this he says “the proper goal of human life is perfection of the individual.” But, at the same time, he considers that this development of individuality should not be at the cost of social interests. Henri Bergson (1859-1951), the Noble Laureate French philosopher, developed this idea to a higher dimension. 5. The ‘chalk and talk’ method has no scope. It is self-determined and governed by its own laws. His dramatic portrayal of the estrangement of natural man from society jolted and influenced such contemporary thinkers as Immanuel Kant and continues to intrigue philosophers and social scientists. Therefore, philosophy should feel free to make use of the findings of scientists in its own pursuit, while also feeling free to off… A girl cannot be educated to be a man. He brought the child into the foreground of the educational arena and pleaded that educational material should be the facts and phenomena of nature. The naturalists differ in their opinion in respect of curriculum. He was against imparting any education to the child in early years of life. He attaches no importance to cultural subjects. Naturalism attaches too much importance to the animal nature of man — his instincts, impulses and emotions, and completely ignores the spiritual and cultural values of life. First, … The child’s education is the free development of his interests and motives. The answer is ‘by both’. The creation of the arts and sciences caused man to become “less pure,” more artificial, and egoistic, and man’s egoistic nature prevents him from regaining the simplicity of original human nature. In education Philosophy of naturalism was a revolt against the stereotyped education system and against the artificiality of life. Thus, the forces of pleasure and pain will effectively teach discipline to the child. Hypothetically, two persons brought up with the same chance experiences and education would be exactly the same. He should a have critical and scientific bent of mind and supreme reverence for truth. But education is a mental activity rather than a physical one. Every action is inevitably followed by its natural consequences. The child should grow freely according to his own nature and pace without interference from the educator or the parents. Behind everything there is Nature. Methods of Teaching 8. It emphasises learning through the senses. Nature will tell man how to know, if he will but listen as children “naturally” do. Man himself creates values in interaction with the environment in which he is placed. According to Rousseau, a woman should be the centre of the family, a housewife, and a mother. Children should learn from their sensory experiences because the senses are the gateways of knowledge. His whole education will be according to the natural laws of human development. They want the children to acquire everything with their own efforts. Some Basic Principles 4. The theory is best known as the ‘survival of the fittest’ — a term coined by Herbert Spencer (1820-1903). 4. A central thought in ontological naturalism is that allspatiotemporal entities must be identical to or metaphysicallyconstituted by physical[3]entities. One of those influenced was the German Johann Bernhard Basedow, who agreed with Rousseau’s enthusiasm for nature, with his emphasis on manual and practical skills, and with his demand for practical experience rather than empty verbalism. Adherents of naturalism assert that natural laws are the only rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural world, and that the changing universe is at every stage a product of these laws. It will also locate the debat… Many ontological naturalists thusadopt a physicalist attitude to mental, biological, social and other such“special” subject matters. Kant referred to Rousseau’s influence on him. Naturalism emphasises free and spontaneous self-expression of the child. If the consequences of his action turn out to be pleasant and favourable, it would be repeated and, therefore, learnt. Rousseau’s Emile was to be educated according to the laws of nature, away from society. Rousseau, in his A Discourse on Inequality, an account of the historical development of the human race, distinguished between “natural man” (man as formed by nature) and “social man” (man as shaped by society). The first book of Émile describes the period from birth to learning to speak. It stands for complete freedom to be given to the child in learning. They attach great importance to creative activities and self-expression. It is play which helps the child to express himself fully. Naturalism is not so much a special system as a point of view or tendency common to a number of philosophical and religious systems; not so much a well-defined set of positive and negative d He promoted, in general, a pedagogic hothouse atmosphere. “It decries all external restraint in education and it condemns all unnecessary formalities in education. Matter takes different forms. Both environment and heredity have their role in shaping human beings. It wants all education to be in strict conformity with the nature of the child. The only discipline applied in this system is the discipline of natural consequences. Each development made the statue more human and dramatized Condillac’s idea that man is nothing but what he acquires, beginning with sensory experience. Nature, according to the naturalists, is complete in itself, having its own laws. According to the naturalists, society is meant for the individual and not the individual for society as they believe that man is born good. Comenius wanted that all subjects should be taught to all men. He gives a very high place to science. “Follow nature” is the watch-word of naturalism. Definition of Naturalism “Naturalism is not science but an assertion about science. They contend that the child’s nature is essentially good, and any intervention is, therefore, harmful. Naturalism does not attach much importance to spiritualism or religion in the curriculum. 2. Naturalism and Discipline 10. Good education can be had only by a direct contact with nature. For him man was by nature good and capable of never-ending perfection, and the goal of education should be the “general, gradually increasing perfection of man.” He drafted a democratic, liberal, and at the same time somewhat socialist concept of school policy: there should be a uniform structure of public education and equal chances for all; ability and attainment should be the only standards for selection and careers; and private interests should be prevented from having influence in the educational system. Life, according to the biological naturalists, is dynamic, ever-changing and ever-developing phenomenon. The teacher must pay special attention to distinguishing between the real needs of the child and his whims and fancies. Naturalism believes that everything comes from nature and returns to nature. Freedom should be the pivot round which the educational program should revolve. Children should be educated, not with reference to the present conditions of things, but rather with regard to a possibly improved state of the human race—that is, according to the ideal of humanity and its entire destiny. Nature spares none. This he shares with animals. Gandhi’s Educational Philosophy of Naturalism Essay Sample. The child Émile is to learn through experience, not through words; he is to bow not to the commands of man but to necessities. Social elements enter the little society through the tutor’s knowledge when the tutor thinks Émile can learn something from them. Senses are the gateways of knowledge. Condillac rejected the notion of innate ideas, arguing instead that all faculties are acquired. Rousseau pleaded negative education for children and was not in favour of formal text-books. He studies science, not by receiving instruction in its facts but by making the instruments necessary to solve scientific problems of a practical sort. Available here are philosophical papers and commentary on various topics, all approached from a more or less naturalistic standpoint. He should not make an artificial effort to educate the child. This universe is governed by natural laws. Access the content here. Physical nature is external and nature of the child is internal which means the basic instincts, impulses, tendencies, capacities and other in born potentialities of the child. More specifically it is the assertion that scientific knowledge is final, leaving no room for extra scientific or philosophical knowledge.”---R.B.Perry “Naturalism is a loosely applied in educational theory to 5. The word naturalism believes that people are restricted to the phenomenal world of a scientific education (Morrish, 1967). Rousseau and his followers were intrigued by a third and more elusive ideal: naturalism. Naturalism is a philosophical doctrine which holds the belief that “matter” is the ultimate reality. According to the naturalists, instincts should be the main instrument of education. It is a philosophy which considers nature as everything and denies the existence of any spirit. The driving motivation for this kind of ontological naturalism isthe need to explain how special entities can h… Such a role of the teacher is advocated by all the modern educators and in all the modern methods of teaching. Rousseau is of the opinion that children should never be punished for their wrong deeds. Spencer advocates that only those subjects should be included in the curriculum which minister to self-preservation as it is the first law of life. It believes only in the reality of material objects and the laws of mass and motion. The individual must be “in harmony with and well-adapted to his surroundings.”. In short, man is a “compromised personality”. The entire universe is governed by the laws of nature which are unchangeable Science reveals the mysteries of nature; hence only that knowledge is true that is derived from science. History helps to understand the present in the light of the past and leads to the future. 4. The biological nature of man consists’ of impulses, instincts and emotions, tendencies and propensities. At the close of Émile, Rousseau cannot assure the reader that Émile and Sophie will be happy when they live apart from the tutor; the outcome of his experiment is in doubt, even in his own mind. She should strive to please her husband, concern herself more than he with having a good reputation, and be satisfied with a simple religion of the emotions. Therefore, there is no religion. Naturalism is a term loosely applied in educational theory to systems of training that are not dependent on schools and books but on manipulation of the actual life of educand.Naturalism is an artistic movement advocating realistic description: in art or literature, a movement or school advocating factual or realistic description of life, including its less pleasant aspects. literary genre that started as a movement in late nineteenth century in literature The naturalists not only emphasise the present but also the past and the future. Naturalism in Education There are different systems of philosophy, so there are different educational philosophies that tend to give direction to educational practices. Copyright 10. The educator must see that the child develops freely. Naturalism Humanism is a naturalistic worldview. Content Filtrations 6. Herbert Spencer also supports the doctrine of natural discipline. The naturalists, in general, contend that the child’s present experiences, interests and activities should determine the choice of studies. He is only to help the child in the discovery of truth. The innate nature of the child should be developed in natural environment and not in the artificial atmosphere of the school. Individuality develops in and through society. Disclaimer 9. It contends that the ultimate reality is matter, and not mind or spirit. The only discipline to be applied is the discipline of natural consequences. Such an education should be systematic, evolutionary and inter-related. They are in favour of inclusion of history in the curriculum as it deals with the cultural heritage of the race. An educational concept so rationalistic in its aims and with such a democratic and liberal structure cannot be narrowly nationalistic; it is cosmopolitan. This material world is being governed by a system of natural laws and the man, who is the creation of the material world, must submit to them. Naturalism has no faith in formal education. It unfolds and develops spontaneously from within. It does not give virtue, it protects from vice; it does not inculcate truth; it protects from error. When systematic and sustained efforts are made to impose knowledge on the child without considering his interests and aptitudes, it is called positive method of teaching. A negative education does not mean a time of idleness; far from it. The creed of the naturalists is “follow nature” as it supplies all laws of learning. 3. Man creates them when he reacts to — or interacts with — his environment. It perhaps began with the philosophes, the rationalists and liberals such as Voltaire and Diderot who emphasized the development of the individual through state education—not as a means, of course, of adjusting to the state and its current government but as a means of creating critical, detached, responsible citizens. In the field of education “Nature” is used in two senses – one conveying the physical nature and second the “nature of the child” i.e., tendencies, impulses, instincts of the child with which he is born. Article shared by According to Rousseau education means “natural development of organs and powers of the child” He said child’s first education should be negative which means avoiding teaching of virtue or truth to him. Rousseau’s statement of naturalistic aim of education is the most comprehensive and lucid. There are no higher or eternal values. The child should be educated according to his nature. In the educative process the child takes the pivotal position. He is corrupted by the society. Self- expression, follow nature, auto-education, play-way, Pedocentricism, sense-training, self- discipline and learning by doing are some of the main characteristics of modern education. The child must learn to rule himself and come to terms with the twin necessities of liberty and constraint, the product of which is true freedom. It does not, therefore, require us to have insight or intuition to understand Nature. Naturalism definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. The educational goals of naturalism are; maintenance of self, securing the necessities of life, improving the students, maintaining the social and political relations, and enjoy free time (Spencer, 1985). 1. W. V. Quine describes naturalism as the position that there is no higher tribunal for truth than natural science itself. Prohibited Content 3. The biological naturalists have raised a very pertinent question: Is a man shaped by Iris environmental forces or by inherited equipment’s? The second book covers the time from the child’s learning to speak to the age of 12. 6. The child should be left perfectly free to act in any way he likes and then face the consequences of his actions. 5. The naturalist’s experience of wonder in the face of the world is held in tandem with an intellectual conviction that the material universe exhausts all reality. Children should be treated as children and not as small adults. The educational significance of this idea is found in Condillac’s An Essay on the Origin of Human Knowledge (1746), where he writes of a “method of analysis,” by which the mind observes “in a successive order the qualities of an object, so as to give them in the mind the simultaneous order in which they exist.” The idea that there is a natural order which the mind can learn to follow demonstrates Condillac’s naturalism along with his sensationism. “It decries all external restraint in education and it condemns all unnecessary formalities in education. It denies the existence of anything beyond nature. The naturalists have regard for actual facts, actual situations and realities. One of them was Étienne Bonnot de Condillac, who, along with Voltaire, may be said to have introduced Locke’s philosophy to France and established it there. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Naturalism regards education as the dynamic side of philosophy. In the field of education, Naturalism means the development of child according to his inherent nature. The inner or spiritual nature of man is less emphasised. According to biological naturalism self-preservation is the first law of nature. It helps in solving the problems of life and in adjusting the individual to the environment. Natural development of the child, the naturalists believe, takes place in the natural environment rather than in artificially designed atmosphere of the school. It does not believe in existence of God. In Gardner's learning style theory, the naturalist intelligence is one that integrates and investigates the environment. are the functions of the brain. The naturalists advocate freedom in education. External discipline has no place in naturalistic system of education. Rousseau defines negative education as “one that tends to perfect the organs that are the instruments of knowledge. It denies the existence of a spiritual universe — the universe of ideas and values. Pedocentricism is another important contribution of the naturalists in the field of education. Naturalism in Education: Naturalism as a philosophy of education has exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. For harmonious development of the child, he should be given freedom to plan his own activities. The freedom of the child is another important feature of naturalistic education. 2. Thus, the whole of the child’s learning will come from his own experiences and their natural consequences. The naturalist method is to gather direct experience from nature, men and things. The naturalists want an “ideal environment of freedom for the development of the growing child.” Coercive methods are not permitted for imparting knowledge. He is an observer of the child’s development rather than a giver of information. The naturalists say that there are two methods of teaching — the positive and the negative. This is possible if each child is permitted freedom to grow at his own pace and according to his own nature. In the Treatise on Sensations (1754) Condillac imagined a statue organized inwardly like a man but animated by a soul that had never received an idea or a sense impression. It is in his free play that the child most clearly reveals his nature and the lines of his natural development. Helvétius was, perhaps, unique in joining such a strong belief in intellectual equalitarianism with the possibility of a controlling environmentalism. Naturalism in education stands for the doctrine of “follow nature” in education. Instincts, impulses and emotions should form the basis of all education of the child. Naturalism does not believe in spiritualism. The development of the child should be from within and not from without. He must adapt himself to the environment. Bullfighting arguments against and action against. Not until the age of 15, described in the fourth book, does Émile study the history of man and social experience and thus encounter the world of morals and conscience. According to the naturalists there is inherent goodness in man. Naturalism takes recourse to such concepts as appetites, emotions, instincts and evolution. Every individual has a social self. But Locke did not agree with this view, and said it is not possible to teach all subjects to all. Play is nature’s mode of education. Image Guidelines 5. 8. Identification. Rousseau’s advice was: “Give your scholar no verbal lessons, he should be taught by experience alone.” All knowledge must emerge out of actual life situation and experience. Hence only those subjects should be taught which are necessary. But Spencer does not wish to apply this principle during infancy. With a great faith in biological evolution, it accepts man as the highest form of living organism in the evolutionary process. The greatest attraction of the child is play. In man there is an innate capacity for morality. Mind is the brain functioning and brain is matter. This discussion will not present a defense or critique of one or another specific version of naturalism. Naturalists differ with regard to the aim of education. The naturalistic aims of education are reflected in its curriculum. Naturalism takes into account only the present needs of the child and ignores his future needs and the ultimate goals and purposes of man’s life. NATURALISM Education is to be in accordance with nature. To them there is no absolute good or evil in the world. Education, to Gandhiji, was a means to achieve perfection of individuality on the one hand and an instrument of service to the nation on the other. Naturalism as a philosophy of education has exercised a great influence on the theory and practice of education. In Rousseau’s view, the education of girls was to be similar with regard to naturalness, but it differed because of sexual differences. Naturalism is a term loosely applied in educational theory to systems of training that are not dependent on schools and books but on manipulation of the actual life of educand Naturalism is an artistic movement advocating realistic description: in art or literature, a movement or school advocating factual or realistic description of life, including its less pleasant aspects. Darwin (1809-1882) and Lamarck (1744-1829) are the greatest exponents of ‘biological naturalism’. Naturalism in Education Naturalism is a philosophical doctrine which holds the belief that “matter” is the ultimate reality. 3. The child occupies the central position in the educative process. In it he asserted, “A man can only become a man through education. They condemn corporal punishment as it represses the impulses and instincts of the children. Pedocentricism was the key-note of the naturalistic method. True education takes place when the nature, powers and inclinations of the child are allowed to develop freely with a minimum of guidance. The naturalists see things as they are. He has to provide suitable opportunities and create conditions which are conducive to the natural development of the child. It totally neglects the moral development of the child. It is the only reality. In general terms, the ‘naturalism’ that we refer to in natural science is the doctrine. Forms 3. NATURALISM and EDUCATION October 19, 2018 / 0 Comments Naturalism is the philosophy that separates nature from God, subordinates spirit to matter and set up unchangeable laws as supreme. The naturalists advocate the development of child without any restriction. McDougall (1871-1938), the famous exponent of the Naturalistic school of psychology, does not accept the theory of pleasure. 6. 3. Rousseau, Fichte, Montessori and Ross are in favour of non-intervention of the teacher in the education of the child. Its watchword is “Back to Nature” as expounded by Rousseau and Gandhiji. Read this article to learn about Naturalism:- 1. Only under freedom, the naturalists believe, the child can grow in his natural way. The nature is a great book to him. As regards language and mathematics they opine that only such knowledge of these subjects should be acquired as is essential for scientific studies. There is no better method than the scientific method for judging the claims of science, and there is neither any need nor any place for a "first philosophy", such as (abstract) metaphysics or epistemology, that could stand behind and justify science or the scientific method. Under the naturalistic school of philosophy the aim of education is self-expression. Report a Violation, Froebel’s Contribution in the Field of Education. To the naturalists, formal education is artificial and vicious. For this reason, the naturalists viewed the material world as a powerful force and independent mechanism. In conclusion we can say that naturalism has secured freedom for the child and has further succeeded in freeing the child from many a tyranny of rigidity, interference and strict discipline. Let the child discover the truth. Many of the Rousseauists were nationalistic in a somewhat different way. He is nothing more than what education makes him.” Education should discipline man and make him cultured and moral; its aim is ultimately the creation of a happier mankind. Naturalism stands for a “hands-off’ policy in education. 2. The Enlightenment was cosmopolitan in its effort to spread the light of reason, but from the very beginning of the age there were nationalistic tendencies to be seen in varying shades. They apprehend reality as it is in its own nature. To regulate the school society, government is required, but it must be self-government. The way of the naturalist is “auto-education or self-education.” They do not advocate much teaching but emphasise much learning experience of the pupils. In education, Naturalism is a term applied to systems of training a child not dependent on schools and books but on manipulation of the actual life of the child. He wishes that children should be left to suffer the natural unpleasant consequences of their wrong actions and learn from them. The interests and aptitudes of children should determine the educational programmes. Some naturalists consider man as a machine and they opine that the aim of education is to make the human machine as perfect and efficient as possible. Finally, his emphasis on understanding the child’s nature had a profound influence by creating interest in the study of child development, inspiring the work of such psychologists as G. Stanley Hall and Jean Piaget. The third book is devoted to the ages from 12 to 15. 6. Meerut,INDIA We are born weak, we need strength; helpless, we need aid; foolish, we need reason. It is opposed to idealism in its interpretation of reality. According to this form of naturalism, mind has no existence apart from the body. by Ignacio Prado, Tufts University, June 2006 Naturalistsare above all people who experience, in E.O. Émile, his major work on education, describes an attempt to educate a simple and pure natural child for life in a world from which social man is estranged. Man is born rational. Its permanent contributions in the field of education may be summed up: 1. Rousseau’s aim throughout is to show how a natural education, unlike the artificial and formal education of society, enables Émile to become social, moral, and rational while remaining true to his original nature. In methods of teaching, naturalism is a revolt against the old, traditional and bookish system of education. Naturalism has its own limitations and disadvantages. Basedow was perhaps influenced by his seven-year-old daughter, who was put forward as a wonder child with extraordinary knowledge. The naturalists, therefore, have given a prominent place to the play-way method. TOS 7. Part of a series on: Irreligion; Irreligion How to use naturalism in a sentence. In The Quest for Being, Sidney Hook defines naturalism as 'the systematization of what is involved in the scientific method of inquiry.' According to the naturalists the proper method of imparting scientific knowledge is through observation and experimentation. What makes people different in later life are differing experiences. Education is very much effective when it comes through sensory channels. They believed in a kind of “moral patriotism.” They distrusted state-controlled nationalism and favoured instead a virtuous, patriotic citizen who experienced spontaneous feelings for his nation. At the same time it does not include music and painting in the curriculum. He says, “A three-year-old urchin, playing with an open razor, cannot be allowed to learn by this discipline of natural consequences, for the consequences may be too serious.”. But Condorcet was nationalistic insofar as he wanted “to show the world at last a nation in which freedom and equality for all was an actuality.” He was, in fact, a strong supporter of the Revolution. The mental or psycho-social environment. Contribution of Naturalism. Privacy Policy 8. All immoral or undesirable actions will result in unpleasant consequences and these unfavorable results will make the individual avoid the repetition of such actions in future. Limitations 11. Naturalism and Curriculum 7. He dealt specifically with pedagogy only within a lecture he gave as holder of the chair of philosophy in Königsberg; the main features of the lecture were collected in a short work, Über Pädagogik (1803; “On Pedagogy”). Naturalism believes that mind is an accident in the process of evolution and it can be explained in terms of nature. 4. T. H. Huxley does not agree with Spencer, for giving undue importance to science. – imagination, thinking, reasoning etc own nature and returns to nature make an artificial effort to the. — such as physics, chemistry, zoology, botany — in the education of the educator is of! Elan vital, will-to-power, will-to-live, a housewife, and those that are the gateways of knowledge broad. 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