The plant usually flowers from early July to mid-September in North Dakota. `May Night’ and `Crystal Blue’ are good choices for North Dakota gardens. The purple-red flowers have six petals appearing in circles around the square stalks. Likely the best overall replacement plant. Purple Loosestrife Purple loosestrife, known for its beautiful purple flowers and landscape value, was brought to the United States from Europe in the 1800's. Larger infestations require treatment with herbicides and/or biological control agents. Identification: Purple loosestrife is an erect, perennial herb, with a candelabrum of flowering branches at the top of the plant. These garden cultivars were thought to be sterile but have now been shown to cross-pollinate with the wild Lythrum type and sometimes with other Lythrum cultivars. They are drought tolerant and grow best in full sun. Habitat Purple loosestrife grows in a variety of wet habitats, including wet meadows, marshes, river banks, and the edges of ponds and reservoirs. The roots become thick and woody in mature plants. Allow the plants to dry out, then burn if possible. dom_i.query(document).ready(function(){ The aerial shoots die in the fall and new shoots arise the following spring from buds at the top of the root crown. Figure 6. The weed has slowly spread over time and currently infests approximately 1200 acres in 20 counties. Purple loosestrife can be cut or pulled without a permit in Minnesota. Overview Information Purple loosestrife is a plant. It can quickly dominate a site and adapt to environmental changes. Take care to prevent further seed spread from clothing or equipment during the removal process. imgWidth = imgWidth.replace("px",""); dom_i.query(this).after("

"); Wick application is also effective but is labor intensive. The most identifiable characteristic of purple loosestrife is the striking rose to purple colored flowers (Figure 4). Native to North America. count = count+1; NRCS Home | USDA.gov | Site Map | Civil Rights | FOIA | Plain Writing | Accessibility Statement, Policy and Links| Non-Discrimination Statement | Information Quality | USA.gov | WhiteHouse.gov Although the root crown expands and produces more shoots each year, the maximum growth of the root crown diameter is limited to about 20 inches. })*/ When Lythrum reverts to the weedy purple loosestrife, it can invade wetlands and rapidly spread. Purple loosestrife - identification • Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) • a dicot in the Lythraceae family • Perennial herb, 2-9 ft. tall • Taproot and spreading root stock • Leaves opposite (or whorls of 3), lanceolate, up to 4” long • Flowers in dense spike, magenta • Branched stems are square (sometimes six-sided) Purple For current information on herbicides, see the latest Noxious and Troublesome Weeds section of W253 “North Dakota Weed Control Guide.”. Purple loosestrife is typically found invading lakeshores, wetlands, ponds, and wet pastures and ditches. The plant was sold in North Dakota by its genus name Lythrum for at least 50 years. Russian sage (Perovskia artriplicifolia) – Grows to 2 to 5 feet tall and wide with feathery spires of purple flowers from mid-summer to frost. To prevent spread into aquatic sites, all purple loosestrife plantings are required by state law to be removed. Shear the spent flower heads to encourage a second set of blooms. The most identifiable characteristic of purple loosestrife is the striking rose to purple colored flowers (Figure 4). Research at NDSU has shown that seed viability of purple loosestrife growing in North Dakota wetlands ranged from 50 to 100 percent. var imgTitle = dom_i.query(this).attr("title") == undefined ? '' Three biocontrol insect species were first released in North Dakota in 1997 and include: Galerucella pusilla — a leaf-feeding beetleGalerucella calmariensis — a leaf-feeding beetleHylobius transversovittatus — a root-mining weevil. Plant grows 2 to 3 feet tall with blue to violet flowers on spikes in June and again in August. Its purpose is to encourage the identification and reporting of these species to the Commissioner in order to facilitate the collection of information to assist the Commissioner in determining which species should be designated as noxious weeds. Research has found that all varieties of lythrum produce seed, which is a source of infestation to aquatic sites, including rivers, lakes, sloughs, dams, dugouts, bogs, swamps, irrigation ditches, streams (perennial or semi-permanent) and other water courses, or wet sites. The flowers are arranged on a spike, which can be a few inches to 3 feet long. Small areas can be dug by hand. IDENTIFICATION PURPLE Loosestrife A CONTINUING THREAT TO WISCONSIN’S WETLANDS AND WATERWAYS 3-9 ft. in height flowers in a spike; closely attached to stem 5-6 petals per flower stiff, four-sided, upright stem opposite leaf arrangement Pickerel Weed: Pontederia cordata In winter months, dead brown flower stalks remain with old seed capsules visible on the tips. The plant’s growth is generally too compact to offer cover, and cover may be as crucial to wildlife as food. var imgAlt = dom_i.query(this).attr("alt") == undefined ? '' : dom_i.query(this).css("margin-bottom").trim(); Since glyphosate does not provide residual control, treated areas will need to be monitored for regrowth from the roots or seedlings for several years. – Black-eyed Susan is a short growing example. Removal of all plant material is important. Identification: Purple loosestrife is an erect perennial herb in the loosestrife family (Lythraceae) that develops a strong taproot, and may have up to 50 stems arising from its base. } On the main (angled) stem, young, new shoots bearing small leaves may angle out directly above mature leaves. It is important to dispose of the plants away from the water. Dispose of plants and roots by drying and burning or by composting in an enclosed area. Description: Robust, perennial herb, 4-6', base of mature plant feels woody.Leaves: Simple, opposite or whorled, lanceolate to oblong, entire, sessile. U.S. National Plant Germplasm System - Lythrum salicaria //]]>, Enter Keyword, Phrase, or Text to search the site, herbaceous perennial with woody taproot that produces clusters of many stems 3'-10' tall, above-ground parts die back over Winter; dead stems may remain standing over Winter, stems stiff, square (or many-angled in mature plants); increasingly woody in late summer, stems end in a long, showy flower spike bearing many closely-attached flowers, flowers bright pink to dark purple, each with 5-7 petals, leaves opposite or whorled; without stalks; lance-shaped, with entire (untoothed) margins, leaves and stems sometimes have soft hairs, wetland invader; displaces open water and native plants of value to wildlife. Grows best in full sun. Good cut flower. Spread of purple loosestrife is primarily by seed, but the plant can also spread vegetatively from stem cuttings. Roundup and similar glyphosate formulations can be used to remove purple loosestrife from large plantings or infestations away from water. Rudbeckia (Rudbeckia spp.) (Reviewed and updated by Dr. Esther McGinnis, NDSU Extension Service Horticultural Specialist.). Purple loosestrife was brought to North America from Europe as a decorative plant and for medicinal purposes about 200 years ago. Check out the Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) fact sheet; Learn about Purple loosestrife identification; Wisconsin DNR has been using four of its insect enemies, also from Europe, to control it here since 1994. State law requires all plants to be removed to prevent this plant from becoming a major weed problem in the wetlands of the state. var imgMarginRight = dom_i.query(this).css("margin-right") == undefined ? This highly invasive plant was likely introduced when its seeds were included in soil used as ballast in European sailing ships and discarded in North America. – Resembles sunflowers and used for background border. dom_i.query = jQuery.noConflict(true); A variety of sprayers, including backpack sprayers and boat-mounted sprayers, can be used to control purple loosestrife in aquatic sites. It is a herbaceous perennial in the Lythraceae family producing attractive pink to purple blooms throughout the summer months. Identification Leaves: Simple, lance-shaped and do not have petioles. Grows 3 to 4 feet tall and flowers in mid-summer. Purple loosestrife, a beautiful garden plant with an aggressive nature, was first introduced into North America in the early 1800s. Grows 2 to 3 three feet tall and prefers partial shade and moist growing conditions. With the Rodeo or Glypro formulations, a nonionic surfactant approved for aquatic sites at 0.25% vol/vol must be added to the spray solution. MDARD Weed Risk Assessment for Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) - This document evaluates the invasive potential of the plant species using information based on … } Purple Loosestrife may be distinguished from other species of Lythrum by its stems that end in dense, showy flower spikes. The cultivar ‘Royal Candles’ is a prolific bloomer and has a compact form. }) Click on images to view full-size . : dom_i.query(this).attr("title").trim(); These infestations can be traced to escapes from public or private horticultural plantings, often from seed that finds its way to streams and rivers through storm drains.Purple loosestrife was added to the North Dakota Noxious Weed list in 1996 after it was found on 37 acres in 11 counties. if(imgWidth.indexOf("px") > 0){ } The purple loosestrife stand was eliminated and native cattails predominated by 2004. This method is most useful on garden plantings or young infestations. var imgFloat = dom_i.query(this).css("float") == undefined ? Small infestations can be controlled by removing all roots and underground stems. Native to North America. Under optimum conditions, a small isolated group of purple loosestrife plants can spread to cover aquatic sites in just one growing season (Figure 3). Some species of Liatris are native. Feel free to use and share this content, but please do so under the conditions of our, IDENTIFICATION and CONTROL of Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.). The seed capsule is two celled and contains many very small seeds (1 mm long or less). were released, and control in 2000 (bottom). } Leaves are simple (0.75 to 4 inches long, 0.2 to 0.5 inches wide), entire, and can be opposite or whorled. Purple cone flower (Echinacea purpurea) – Drought tolerant, a daisy like flower which blooms from mid-summer to frost with white to purple or red flowers. Student Focused. var imgWidth = dom_i.query(this).css("width") == undefined ? Waterfowl, especially ducks, avoid wetlands that have become dominated with purple loosestrife. Removal of purple loosestrife is the only way to prevent the plant’s spread into North Dakota wetlands (Figure 6). if(imgMarginRight.indexOf("px") > 0){ The flowers are arranged on a spike, which can be a few inches to 3 feet long. Will tolerate heat and survives in poor soils. The lance-shaped leaves are up to 4 inches long, and mostly opposite or in whorls of 3 (which may appear alternately arranged). Native to North America. Glyphosate has no soil residual so it could be used to remove purple loosestrife located within an ornamental planting without having to dig in the flower bed. Purple loosestrife Lythrum salicaria. Figure 3. – Bell shaped flowers. For example, songbirds do not consume the small hard seed. Drought tolerant. Purple loosestrife is a rhizomatous perennial forb introduced to North America from Eurasia and Africa. It was first introduced into North America in the early 1800s for ornamental and medicinal purposes. The cultivar ‘Dark Towers’ has wine-red foliage and light pink flowers. Bugbane or Black Snakeroot (Cimicifuga racemosa) – Grows 3 to 5 feet tall with 4 to 6 foot ivory-white flower spikes in late summer. imgMarginRight = imgMarginRight.replace("px",""); dom_i.query(this).addClass('img_'+count); Weed Identification. Heliopsis (Heliopsis spp.) See more ideas about Purple loosestrife, Plants, Wild flowers. Prefers moist site with high organic matter in full sun or partial shade. If you currently have a cultivar of purple loosestrife growing in your garden or in a public planting, state law requires the plants be removed. Several perennial plants that produce flowers on spikes could serve as replacement plants for purple loosestrife and include: Blazing Star, Gay Feather (Liatris spp.) – This long-lived perennial features spikes of purple flowers and forms a bush-like clump. In general, small infestations of a few plants can be controlled by digging, especially when plants are only a few years old. leaf feeding beetles have been most successful. Rodney G. Lym, Professor, Department of Plant Sciences, North Dakota State University. Purple loosestrife forms dense monotypic stands as it displaces native wetland plants (Figure 2). The garden varieties of purple loosestrife were sold by many cultivar names including Morden Pink, Drop-more Purple, and Morden Gleam. } dom_i.query(this).after("

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"); Purple Loosestrife grows in wet, open, sunny areas. }); The most destructive impact of purple loosestrife invasions is on the ecology of aquatic sites. Eliminating the entire vegetative cover will promote purple loosestrife seed germination, which can result in an increase in plant density rather than control. Known purple loosestrife infestations in North Dakota are small and generally found in or downstream of urban areas. Learn how to identify purple loosestrife and avoid accidentally spreading this invasive plant through recreational activities and gardening. Regardless of the herbicide applied, the infested areas should be monitored to ensure that purple loosestrife does not reinfest from root or seed. Pulling purple loosestrife by hand is easiest when plants are young (up to two years) or in sand. oz./gallon of water) at bloom or shortly thereafter. Figure 4. Also, areas downstream from river or creek infestations and on all sides of a lake or pond infestation should be monitored for purple loosestrife seedlings. //dom_i.query(imgDiv).append(""); Glyphosate will provide good control of purple loosestrife when applied from July to early September. dom_i.query(this).css("float","none"); 300 : dom_i.query(this).css("width").trim(); False indigo (Baptisia spp.) Minimize overspray to open water. Learn more about Purple Loosestrife. Garlon should be applied as a 1 to 2% solution (1 to 2 gallons Garlon per 100 gallons of water or 1.3 to 2.6 fl. var imgMarginBottom = dom_i.query(this).css("margin-bottom") == undefined ? '' if(imgMarginLeft.indexOf("px") > 0){ Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria L. Loosestrife family (Lythraceae) NATIVE RANGE Eurasia; throughout Great Britain, and across central and southern Europe to central Russia, Japan, Manchuria China, southeast Asia and northern India DESCRIPTION Purple loosestrife is an erect perennial herb in the loosestrife family, with a square, Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. Grows about 3 feet tall and wide in full sun with good drainage. False indigo is slow growing in the beginning but will mature into an impressive specimen. Excellent choice for near ponds or streams. Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria, L. virgatum and any combination thereof) is listed as a MDA Prohibited Noxious Weed (Control List) and a prohibited invasive species in Minnesota, which means it is unlawful (a misdemeanor) to possess, import, purchase, transport or introduce this species except under a permit for disposal, control, research or education. }); How to identify purple loosestrife Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) is a perennial herbaceous plant with bushy appearance. Best in well drained soil with full sun. Spread, impact, and control of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in North American wetlands. salicaire. Blanket Flower (Gaillardia aristata) – Yellow flowers with red centers. Purple Loosestrife has been planted widely for its beauty. Spray dye added to the tank may be useful to ensure uniform application to purple loosestrife with minimal herbicide applied to desirable plants. Identification and Control Information (each will open in a new window) Maine Invasive Plants: Purple Loosestrife [PDF]—University of Maine Cooperative Extension ; Tips for Managing Purple Loosestrife [PDF]—Maine Integrated Pest Management Council; Species Identification Card: Purple Loosestrife [PDF]—Gulf of Maine Research Institute, Vital Signs Program Wild infestations are associated with moist or marshy sites. Purple loosestrife has square stems, which help to tell it apart from some of the look-alikes that grow in the same areas. rainbow weed. It has become a serious pest to native wetland communities where it out-competes native plants. Purple loosestrife has been heavily utilized in North Dakota flower gardens, park plantings, and golf courses. In addition, overall waterfowl production decreases as suitable nesting habitat is eliminated. Purple loosestrife infestations in North Dakota are generally small and isolated and should be controlled by chemical and/or mechanical methods. The flowering parts are used as medicine. Following several summers of heavy feeding, purple loosestrife infestations have been greatly reduced. Muskrats use cattails to build their homes, and they show a preference for cattail over purple loosestrife for food. There are many horticultural varieties, all of which (contrary to popular opinion) are fertile and can spread seeds and/or pollen. dom.query('img').each(function(){ Compact cultivars are available and include ‘Walkers Low’ and ‘Kit Kat’. Yellow daisy like flowers. Salvia (Salvia nemorosa, S. x sylvestris) – Drought resistant, hardy perennial. Family Lythraceae Scientific Name Lythrum salicaria ← → Other Common Names: purple lythrum. Purple loosestrife is native to Europe and Asia. MI-Purple (Loosestrife) Pages (MSU) (LYSA2) MN-Invasive Exotic Species (DNR) (LYSA2) ND-Identification and Control of Purple Loosestrife (LYSA2) NPCI Alien Plant Working Group: abstract & image (LYSA2) NV-Extension Weed Wanted Posters (LYSA2) National Project for the Biological Control of Purple Loosestrife (LYSA2) Dispose of plants and roots by drying and burning or by composting in an enclosed … Each flower has five to seven petals arising from a cylindrical green tube. var imgMarginTop = dom_i.query(this).css("margin-top") == undefined ? The flowers are magenta, and they are found on tall, narrow spikes from July to October. if(imgAlt != 'Broken Link' && imgAlt != '' && imgAlt != 'offsite link image'){ However, since the largest infestations in North Dakota are in urban areas, mosquito control programs have kept these insects from becoming well established. }else{ Blooms from June through September and grows 2 to 3 feet tall and wide. Each flower has five to seven petals arising from a cylindrical green tube. var count = 1; Plant height ranges from 30 to 60 inches depending upon the cultivar. Several methods are available for purple loosestrife control, including mechanical, biological, and chemical. if(imgMarginBottom.indexOf("px") > 0){ dom_i.query(this).attr("title",imgAlt); For example, the Rodeo and Glypro formulations of glyphosate can be used in water. Plants were brought to North America by settlers for their flower gardens, and seeds were present in the ballast holds of European ships that used soil to weigh down the vessels for stability on the ocean. } A 2,4-D formulation labeled for use near water applied as a 2% solution (2 gallons 2,4-D per 100 gallons of water) or (2.6 fl. Seedlings have ovate hairless cotyledons 3-6 mm long and 2-3 mm wide. N.D. var imgMarginLeft = dom_i.query(this).css("margin-left") == undefined ? '' } : dom_i.query(this).attr("alt").trim(); – Plants grow 2 to 3 feet tall and have flower spikes in white, pink, or purple from July through September. Lythrum plants were brought to North Dakota for flower gardens because of their striking color, ease of growth, winter hardiness, and lack of insect or disease problems. Land Grant. The adults and especially the larvae feed on the leaves and flowers of purple loosestrife (Figure 5). Habit. 10 : dom_i.query(this).css("margin-top").trim(); Also, herbicides can be applied to individual plants selectively in landscape situations to prevent killing desirable plants. Purple loosestrife, an exotic plant from Europe, has overrun many state wetlands. : dom_i.query(this).css("margin-left").trim(); It is difficult to remove all of the roots in a single digging, so monitor the area for several growing seasons to ensure that purple loosestrife has not regrown from roots or seed. Purple loosestrife is a vigorous competitor and can crowd out other vegetation including native species. Can grow three to seven feet tall and will have multiple stems growing from a … Loosestrife stands provide poor cover for waterfowl. Some leaf bases are heart-shaped and may clasp the main stem. Infestations growing along streams or in marshy areas may require specialized equipment and application by trained professionals. if(imgMarginTop.indexOf("px") > 0){ Purple loosestrife is a wetland plant native to Europe and Asia that was brought to North America the early 19 th century. var dom_i = {}; Many landscapes and gardens in North Dakota use Lythrum as a highlight of the planting. The plant usually flowers from early July to mid-September in North Dakota. These insects overwinter as adults and lay eggs in early June in North Dakota. Purple loosestrife's appearance is similar to fireweed and spirea and is sometimes found growing with … urple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) is an introduced invasive weed that is overrunning thousands of acres of wet- lands and waterways in the Midwest. } It is difficult to remove all of the roots in a single digging, so monitor the area for several growing seasons to ensure that purple loosestrife has not regrown from roots or seed. When purple loosestrife replaces native vegetation it also can displace wildlife. Small segments of purple loosestrife stems can become rooted and reestablish the infestation. It can grow anywhere from 4 to 8 feet tall. Important: Only Garlon 3A formulation is labeled for use in wetland sites. Homepage; Broadleaf; Grasslike; Other; purple loosestrife. With approximately 2.7 million seeds produced per plant, purple loosestrife has the potential to spread rapidly once established in an area. Penstemon, beard-tongue (Penstemon spp.) / Invasive Species Identification Sheet - Purple Loosestrife. Garlon will provide good to excellent purple loosestrife control when applied in the pre to early flower or late flower growth stages. Dense stands of purple loosestrife threaten plant and animal diversity. oz./gallon of water) and will provide some residual seedling control. imgMarginTop = imgMarginTop.replace("px",""); Of these insects, the two Galerucella spp. dom_i.query(this).css("margin","0"); if (imgTitle != '') { The size and location of a specific infestation will determine the best control methods. Aromatic foliage, gray-green sage color. }else{ var title = dom.query(this).attr("title") == undefined ? The flowers are hermaphrodite and are pollinated by bees and flies. Purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), a beautiful but aggressive invader, arrived in eastern North America in the early 1800’s. Invasive Species Identification Sheet - Purple Loosestrife Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) herbaceous perennial with woody taproot that produces clusters of many stems 3'-10' tall above-ground parts die back over Winter; dead stems may remain standing over Winter Its 50 stems are four-angled and glabrous to pubescent. It has opposite leaves that are long and narrow with pointed tips, smooth edges, and heart-shaped bases that connect directly to the plant stem with no leaf stalks. 2019 Status in Maine: Widespread.Very Invasive. imgMarginLeft = imgMarginLeft.replace("px",""); //
"); Figure 2. spiked loosestrife. Catmint (Nepeta x faassenii) – Hardy border plant with lavender-blue flowers from early summer to fall. Best results have been obtained when glyphosate is applied as a 1 to 1.5% concentration (1 to 1.5 gallons glyphosate per 100 gallons of water) or (1.3 to 1.9 fl. dom.query(this).attr("title",title); of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. [CDATA[ Purple Loosestrife Lythrum salicaria. Spike speedwell (Veronica spicata) – Shorter growing (18 inches) than others listed with dense blue, white, or pink flowers on a spike. Garlon can be applied in dryland sites but should not be used in landscapes or flower beds because soil residual of the herbicide may prevent establishment of other horticultural plants. imgMarginBottom = imgMarginBottom.replace("px",""); Small infestations can be controlled by removing all roots and underground stems. oz./gallon of water) will prevent seedling establishment when applied in early fall or spring before the plants can establish perennial characteristics. Purple loosestrife invades wetland areas and displaces native plants, such as cattails shown here. if(imgTitle != ''){ Figure 1. Dense purple loosesrife infestation on the Sheyenne River at Valley City in 1997 (top) when Galerucella spp. Cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis) – Scarlet red flowers from early to late summer. "none" : dom_i.query(this).css("float").trim(); Best in full sun. 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Violet flowers on spikes in June and again in August biological, and they show a for... Removal of purple loosestrife plantings are required by state law requires all plants to be removed prevent! Over time and currently infests approximately 1200 acres in 20 counties long-lived perennial features spikes of purple flowers forms. Communities where it out-competes native plants from Eurasia and Africa spikes of purple may! Underground stems water, wind, animals, and golf courses early th! To tell it apart from some of the planting control purple loosestrife flowers are on... Communities where it out-competes native plants are vital to … Learn how to identify purple loosestrife avoid... The same areas the larvae feed on the leaves and flowers in mid-summer become with. Contrary to popular opinion ) are fertile and can crowd out other vegetation including species. Result in an area has shown that seed viability of purple loosestrife large., boats, etc and woody in mature plants as suitable nesting habitat is eliminated to encourage second... There are many Horticultural varieties, all purple loosestrife invades wetland areas and displaces native wetland plants ( Figure )...