März kam es zu mehreren Eruptionen des Vulkans mit einem großen Ausstoß an Asche. [9] On 20 April 2010 Icelandic President Ólafur Grímsson said, "the time for Katla to erupt is coming close ... we [Iceland] have prepared ... it is high time for European governments and airline authorities all over the world to start planning for the eventual Katla eruption."[10]. As long as the fissure was not near the glacier, the risk of flooding was minimal; however, the fissure could extend into the ice cap, thereby greatly increasing the risk of flooding. The onset of the eruption was heralded on 20 March 2010 by the opening of an eruptive fissure at Fimmvorduhals, an area located between the Eyjafjallajökull and Mýrdalsjökull ice caps and bordering the Katla volcano, where the eruptive activity displayed mainly Hawaiian features until 12 April 2010. [74][75] One previous related sequence of eruptions of this volcano, beginning in 1821 is recorded as having lasted for over two years, but no single set of major eruptions is known to have lasted more than 'several days'. [76][77] Other notable volcanic eruptions in recent years include the eruption of Mount Pinatubo of 1991 of VEI 6. [53], The Icelandic Food and Veterinary Authority released an announcement on 18 April 2010, asking that all horse owners who keep their herds outside be on the alert for ash fall. MAIN FINDINGS 3.1 First indications of magma movements under Eyjafjallajökull were detected as early as 1992-1994, with increased seismicity followed by episodes of unrest with ground inflation and earthquakes in 1996 and 1999-2000. The eruptions of Iceland's volcano Eyjafjallajökull in 2010 were apparently triggered by a chain reaction of expanding magma chambers that descended into the Earth, a group of researchers now says. This, with the abundant water-ice at the summit, aids in making lightning.[71]. Over time, the earthquakes rose towards the surface, and land near the volcano rose at least 40 millimeters (2 inches)—both indications that magma was moving underneath the volcano. Questions: a) When did the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull begin and how long did the eruption last? The second phase resulted in an estimated 250 million cubic metres (330,000,000 cu yd) (0.25 km3) of ejected tephra and an ash plume that rose to a height around 9 km (5.6 mi), which rates the explosive power of the eruption as a 4 on the volcanic explosivity index. The second eruptive phase happened under 200 m (660 ft) of glacial ice. By the evening of 6 June 2010, a small, new crater had opened up on the west side of the main crater. A short time-lapse from 17 April 2010. Near real-time volcanic cloud data. While some ash fell on uninhabited areas in Iceland, most had been carried by westerly winds resulting in the shutdown of large air space over Europe. The eruption of Eyjafjallajökull volcano was one of the largest in Europe in recent years. Deep earthquakes were detected near the crust mantle-boundary … : TEPHRA SIZE AND MASS FLOW RATE DURING THE 2010 EYJAFJALLAJöKULL ERUPTION 5645 ash grain sizes larger than 100 microns can be detected by C … The volcano's explosive power was enough to inject ash directly into the jet stream. Instead, the police closed the road to Þórsmörk and the four-wheel-drive trail from Skógar village to the Fimmvörðuháls mountain pass, but these roads and trails were reopened on 29 March, though only for suitable four-wheel drive vehicles. The Institute of Earth Sciences[60] made a preliminary estimate of erupted material in the first three days of the eruption on 14 April 2010 at Eyjafjallajökull. The initial visual report of the eruption was at 23:52 GMT, when a red cloud was seen at the north slopes of Fimmvörðuháls mountain pass,[38][39] lighting up the sky above the eruptive site. [45], A new fissure opened on 31 March, around 200 m (660 ft) north-west of the original fissure. In October 2010, Ármann Höskuldsson, a scientist at the University of Iceland Institute of Earth Sciences, stated that the eruption was officially over, although the area was still geothermally active and might erupt again. It was a bit smaller, around 300 m (980 ft) long according to witnesses, and lava coming from it started to flow into Hvannárgil canyon. The view of the eruption from Þórólfsfel also includes a thermal imaging camera. During the ice capped Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption in April-May 2010, IMO monitored the volcanic activity through various geophysical sensors (seismic, strain, GPS), river runoff from the glacier and the behaviour of the volcanic eruption cloud (see slide show). The volcanic event began in March of 2010 but activity only died down later in May. [citation needed], A fissure opened up about 150 metres (490 ft) in length running in a north-east to south-west direction, with 10 to 12 erupting lava craters ejecting lava at a temperature around 1,000 °C (1,800 °F) up to 150 m (490 ft) into the air. This summit eruption had a short phreato-magmatic phase in 1821 December which was followed by a year-long period of intermittent magmatic/phreato-magmatic activity and flooding (Larsen et al. A series of vents along a 2-km-long north–south-oriented fissure was active, with meltwater flowing mostly down the northern slopes of the volcano, but also to the south. In late summer 2009, a subtle shift at a GPS station on the volcano's flank prompted Sigmundsson and his colleagues to begin monitoring the mountain more closely. Discussion: Six months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption our results indicate that the presence of volcanic ash is associated with two to three times higher recent upper airway symptom rates among the exposed population compared to the unexposed. [73] Ash from the current Eyjafjallajökull eruption contains one-third the concentration typical in Hekla eruptions, with a mean value of 104 mg of fluoride per kg of ash. Immediately before the eruption, the depth of the seismicity had become shallow, but was not significantly enhanced from what it had been in the previous weeks. The direction of the jet stream was unusually stable at the time of the eruption's second phase, continuously southeast. This second phase erupted trachyandesite. Unlike the earlier eruption phase, the second phase occurred beneath glacial ice. [44] Crustal expansion continued at Þorvaldseyri for two days after the eruption began, but was slowly decreasing whilst the volcanic activity was increasing. The shutdown had a knock on impact on the economy and cultural events across Europe. [54] The thick layer of ash that had fallen on some Icelandic pastures and farms at Raufarfell had become wet and compact, making it very difficult to continue farming, harvesting, or grazing livestock.[55]. The data was analyzed using logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, education and smoking status. PARTICIPANTS: Adult (18-80 years of age) eruption-exposed South Icelanders (N=1148) and a control population of residents of Skagafjörður, North Iceland (N=510). The recent eruption of the Eyjafjallaj¨okull volcano in southern Iceland first began as a 500 m long fissure on 20 March 2010. Tephra sedimentation during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption (Iceland) from deposit, radar, and satellite observations C. Bonadonna,1 R. Genco,2 M. Gouhier,3 M. Pistolesi,4 R. Cioni,5,6 F. Alfano,1 A. Hoskuldsson,7 and M. Ripepe2 Received 22 April 2011; revised 5 October 2011; accepted 6 October 2011; published 16 December 2011. Appendices 3. [16] At the end of December 2009, seismic activity began around the Eyjafjallajökull volcano area, with thousands of small earthquakes (mostly of magnitude 1–2 Mw), 7 to 10 km (4.3 to 6.2 mi) beneath the volcano. The first phase of the 2010 eruption began late on the evening of 20 March at the Eyjafjallajökull. Eruptions‎ > ‎ Eyjafjallajökull 2010. Objectives To examine the long-term development of physical and mental health following exposure to a volcanic eruption. The erupting lava cooled very fast, which created a cloud of highly abrasive, glass-rich ash. [26], The grounding of European flights avoided about 3.44×108 kg of CO2 emissions per day, while the volcano emitted about 1.5×108 kg of CO2 per day.[27]. This study was conducted during November 2010–March 2011, 6–9 months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. At the beginning of March 2010 over 3000 earthquakes were measured in a 24 hour period, with a maximum at magnitude 3.1. (See the GPS Time Series[23] page of the Nordic Volcanological Center's[24] website for detailed information on the degree of movement detected in the Earth's crust in the Eyjafjallajökull locality. This summit eruption had a short phreato-magmatic phase in 1821 December which was followed by a year-long period of intermittent magmatic/phreato-magmatic activity and flooding (Larsen et al. On 14 April 2010, however, the eruption entered an explosive phase and ejected fine glass-rich ash to over 8 km (5.0 mi) into the atmosphere. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. By the morning of 24 May 2010, the view from the web camera installed on Þórólfsfell[57] showed only a plume of water vapour surrounded by a bluish haze caused by emission of sulphurous gases. This study was conducted during November 2010-March 2011, 6-9 months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. During the initial flank eruption and the main summit eruption that followed, the rate of recorded earthquakes decreased significantly but remained high enough that the main eruption could be predicted and warnings issued. *** PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR EARLIER UPDATES *** May 24. Craters in autumn. In response to concerns that volcanic ash ejected during the 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland would damage aircraft engines, the controlled airspace of many European countries was closed to instrument flight rules traffic, resulting in what at the time was the largest air-traffic shut-down since World War II. respiratory morbidity compared with 2010, ... Table 3 Risk of respiratory symptoms in 2013 in a popula tion exposed to the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption, by e xposure level. These institutes are the IMO, the Institute of Earth Sciences of the University of Iceland and the Department of Civil Protection Natural disasters like volcanic eruptions constitute a major public-health threat. The eruption was in the form of fire fountains and located to the east of the main Eyjafjallajökull ice cap. [13] The Civil Protection Department[14] of the Icelandic Police produced regular reports about access to the area, including a map of the restricted area around Eyjafjallajokull, from which the public was forbidden. The Icelandic flag carrier airline, Icelandair, seemed at first especially vulnerable, but managed to deal effectively with the eruption and subsequently published a detailed report about its actions and conclusions. The people who lived near the volcano had high levels of irritation symptoms, though their lung function was not lower than expected. The recent eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in southern Iceland first began as a 500 m long fissure on 20 March 2010. The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull exposed residents in southern Iceland to continuous ash fall for more than 5 weeks in spring 2010. Enter multiple addresses on separate lines or separate them with commas. Natural disasters like volcanic eruptions constitute a major public-health threat. Between mid-2000 and 2009, earthquakes occurred intermittently at rates of 1–4 events per month, while deformation remained negligible (Sigmundsson et al., 2010). The participation rate was 72%. b) What type of Volcano is Eyjafjallajökull? This photo was taken at sunrise on a Saturday morning in October, by Ólafur Sigurjónsson who lives in Forsæti III nearby and has done frequent flying across the eruptive area. This study was conducted during November 2010–March 2011, 6–9 months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Due to the distance from the radar to the eruption site as well as orographic blockage the radar cannot detect a volcanic plume, or clouds, below 2.9 km A new phase of the eruption began at approximately 01:00 UTC on 14 April, [20] On 23 March, a small vapour explosion took place, when hot magma came into contact with nearby snowdrifts, emitting a vapour plume which reached an altitude of 7 km (4.3 mi), and was detected on radar from the Meteorological Institute of Iceland. The first phase of the eruption lasted from 20 March to 12 April 2010 and was characterised by olivine basaltic andesite lava flowing from various eruptive vents on the flanks of the mountain. The resulting meltwater flowed back into the erupting volcano, which created two specific phenomena: The rapidly vaporising water significantly increased the eruption's explosive power. Material (tephra) in the ice cauldrons around the volcanic vents: 30 million cubic metres (39,000,000 cu yd), Tephra filling the glacial lagoon of Gígjökulslón, carried by floods down the outlet, Airborne tephra that was carried to the east and south of the volcano, uncompacted tephra fallout from eruption plume: 100 million cubic metres (130,000,000 cu yd), This page was last edited on 24 November 2020, at 14:40. "Volcano tourism" quickly sprang up in the wake of the eruption, with local tour companies offering day trips to see the volcano. Redoubt 2009. The eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in March and April 2010 posed significant challenges for the people of Iceland as well as millions of people across Europe whose airplanes were grounded due to the high concentrations of volcanic ash. MEREU et al. Cold water from melted ice quickly chilled the lava, causing it to fragment into highly abrasive glass particles that were then carried into the eruption plume. d) Which area of the island was worst affected by the Lava flow? [21], By 26 February 2010, the global positioning system (GPS) equipment used by the Iceland Meteorological Office[22] at Þorvaldseyri farm in the Eyjafjöll area (around 15 km (9.3 mi) south-east of the location of the recent eruption)[19] had shown 3 cm of displacement of the local crust in a southward direction, of which a 1-cm displacement had taken place within four days. The erupted products were fragmented material, the majority fine-grained airborne tephra. [17], The radar stations of the Meteorological Institute of Iceland did not detect any appreciable amount of volcanic ashfall during the first 24 hours of the eruption. We do not capture any email address. This, together with the magnitude of the eruption (estimated to be VEI 4)[3] and being 10 to 20 times larger than the eruption of Fimmvörðuháls on 20 March, injected a glass-rich ash plume into the jet stream. [69], At the mouth of the crater, the gases, ejecta, and volcanic plume have created a rare weather phenomenon known as volcanic lightning (or a "dirty thunderstorm"). The initial visual report of the eruption was at 23:52 GMT, when a red cloud was observed at the volcano, lightening up the sky above the eruptive site. On April 14, 2010, when meltwaters from the Eyjafjallajökull glacier mixed with hot magma, an explosive eruption sent unusually fine-grained ash into the jet stream. 10:00", "Experimental Acute Sodium Fluoride Poisoning in Sheep: Renal, Hepatic, and Metabolic Effects", "Ash from Iceland Volcano Endangers Horses", "Ash Fall Causes South Iceland Farmers Serious Trouble", "Iceland's volcanic ash halts flights across Europe | World news", "Articles < Seismicity < Icelandic Meteorological office", "University of Iceland reports and scientists' quotes", "A survey of early health effects of the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruption in Iceland: a population-based study", "Health effects following the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption: a cohort study", "Syndromic surveillance to assess the potential public health impact of the Icelandic volcanic ash plume across the United Kingdom, April 2010", "RAF grounds fighter jets after volcanic dust is found in engines | Home News | News", "Icelandair and the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption in 2010", "Dirty thunderstorm shoots lightning from volcano", The eruption that changed Iceland forever, "Volcano could mean cooling, acid rain: 'Not like Pinatubo' so far, but potential is there", "Icelandic volcano won't affect the world's climate", "Geologist Ari Trausti Guðmundsson answers Iceland volcano questions | IceNews – Daily News", "APOD: 19 April 2010 – Ash and Lightning Above an Icelandic Volcano", "The Cataclysmic 1991 Eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines", Frequently Asked Questions on the Eruption in Iceland – from the Icelandic Met Office, BBC webpage with film of the volcano, taken from 500m from the crater's edge, by Chris Weber on 13 May 2010, Collection of Scientific Earth Observations and Models, Satellite evidence of hot lava flows from an Icelandic volcano (CIMSS Satellite Blog), Description of beginning of current eruption, (March 2010), Icelandic Met Office, Webpages and -links related to 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruptions. IVATF/4-IP/3-2-report on the eruption from the institutes in Iceland that did monitoring and research on the eruption. Most of these were too small (magnitude 2) to be interpreted as precursors to an eruption, but some could be detected in nearby towns. Eruptive products can be split into three categories along with preliminary estimated erupted volumes: Total: 140 million cubic metres (180,000,000 cu yd) which corresponds to some 70–80 million cubic metres (92,000,000–105,000,000 cu yd) of magma. Disclaimer: the views expressed on this site do not imply endorsement by IAVCEI or its affiliate organizations. The last historical eruption of Eyjafjallajökull prior to an eruption in 2010 produced intermediate-to-silicic tephra from the central caldera during December 1821 to January 1823 . The aim of the study was to evaluate the health of the exposed population compared to control population. The exposed group reported more symptoms during the last 12 months; morning phlegm in winter, OR 1.5 (95%CI 1.3-1.8) and runny or stuffed nose, OR 1.4 (95%CI 1.2-1.6). Animated Video created using Animaker - https://www.animaker.com Overview of the events that took place in Iceland. When the second fissure appeared, the road was closed again because of the danger of flash floods, which could have developed if the fissure had opened near big ice caps or other snow reservoirs, but the road was again opened at around noon on 1 April. The magma discharge rate was about 300 cubic metres per second (11,000 cu ft/s) or 750 t/s. The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull exposed residents in southern Iceland to continuous ash fall for more than 5 weeks in spring 2010. By way of comparison, the Mount St. Helens eruption of 1980 was rated as 5 on the VEI, and the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo was rated as a 6. The eruption continued through at least March 26th, and may continue for several more months. The crater was inactive during the last 187 years. Weil keine Vergleichswerte existierten, wurde der Flugverkehr über Nord- und Mitteleuropa in weiten Teilen und für mehrere Tage eingestellt. Beginnend mit dem 20. The first 2010 eruption occurred at Fimmvörðuháls. This study was conducted during November 2010–March 2011, 6–9 months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. [30][31][32] Inhabitants of the risk zone of Fljótshlíð, Eyjafjöll, and Landeyjar area were allowed to return to their farms and homes after an evening meeting with the Civil Protection Department on 22 March and the evacuation plan was temporarily dismissed. Das kleine Island und sein furioser Vulkan: Der Ausbruch des Eyjafjallajökull hielt im Frühling Europa auf Trab, die Aschewolke störte weltweit den Flugverkehr. There was an extensive air travel disruption caused by the closure of airspace over many countries affecting the travel arrangements of hundreds of thousands of people in Europe and elsewhere. This article is of interest to multiple WikiProjects. Previous airplane encounters with ash resulted in sandblasted windows and particles melted inside jet engines, causing them to fail. Hence, there is much speculation that the 2010 eruption may also be followed shortly by activity at Katla. [33][34][35], On 22 March, a flow meter device in the Krossá glacial river (which drains Eyjafjallajökull and Mýrdalsjökull glaciers) in the Þórsmörk area (a few kilometres north-west of the erupting location) started to record a sudden rise in water level and water temperature – the total water temperature rose by 6 °C (11 °F) over a two-hour period, which had never happened so quickly in the Krossá river since measurements began. [58], On 21 June 2010, data from seismic recorders in the area indicated that the frequency and strength of earth tremors had diminished, but were continuing. Design Population-based prospective cohort study. The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull volcano eruption. Analysis, discussion and main findings 6. High-fluoride Hekla eruptions pose a threat to foraging livestock, especially sheep. PARTICIPANTS: Adult (18-80 years of age) eruption-exposed South Icelanders (N=1148) and a control population of residents of Skagafjörður, North Iceland (N=510). Leaky Caldron 09:44, 18 April 2010 (UTC) Consequences sounds good. About 30 minutes played in 18 seconds. [70] When rocks and other ejecta collide with one another, they create static electricity. Composite map of the volcanic ash cloud spanning 14–25 April 2010, Volume of erupted material and magma discharge, Short- and long-term weather and environmental effects, Measurements made by using maps and measurement tools from Fasteignaskrá Íslandskort, Meteorological Institute of Iceland: Eruption in Fimmvörðuháls mountain pass, Kvöldfréttir Stöðvar Tvö "Viðtal við Ármann Höskuldsson eldfjallafræðing", 2010 eruption series in the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic system, Icelandic Association for Search and Rescue, Air travel disruption after the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, knock on impact on the economy and cultural events, previous related sequence of eruptions of this volcano, beginning in 1821, Effects of the April 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption, "Volcanic eruptions: Science and Risk Management", "Eruption in Eyjafjallajökull Status Report: 11:00 GMT, 7 June 2010", "Eruption in Iceland's Eyjafjallajökull Over", "Eruption in Iceland – frequently asked questions", "Iceland prepares for second, more devastating volcanic eruption", "BBC Newsnight interview with President Grímsson of Iceland, 20 April 2010", "Scientists picture Icelandic volcano's 'plumbing, "Eruption at the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic system", "Seismic Signs of Magma Pathways through the Crust in the Eyjafjallajökull volcano, South Iceland", "Jarðskjálftahrina undir Eyjafjallajökli", "GPS time series for Eyjafjallajökull and Katla Volcano", UNEP Year Book2011, An Overview of Our Changing Environment, "Caistor children flee as Iceland volcano erupts | Grimsby Telegraph", Volcanic eruption in Eyjafjallaglacier – flights to Iceland are on hold, "Fyrsta vél frá Boston í loftið klukkan hálf fimm", "Litlar líkur taldar á öðru gosi við Eyjafjallajökul", "Volcano Erupts Under Eyjafjallajökull – The Reykjavik Grapevine", "Gosið enn í gangi – Farið að bera á öskufalli", "Ný gossprunga – skráð 01.04.2010 kl. Additional localised disruption continued into May 2010. The participation rate … Situated to the north of Skógar and to the west of the larger ice cap Mýrdalsjökull, Eyjafjallajökull covers the caldera of a volcano 1,666 m (5,466 ft) high, which has erupted relatively frequently since the last ice age. [25] The seismic activity continued to increase, and from 3 to 5 March, close to 3,000 earthquakes were measured having their epicentre at the volcano. Large-scale release of sulphur dioxide into the troposphere also poses a potential health risk, especially to people with pre-existing breathing disorders. The eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano in Iceland on 20 March 2010 affected the economic, political and cultural activities in Europe and across the world.. The recent eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull and the largest ash plume associated with the second eruption phase were not unparalleled in either volume or abundance; however, the location was the critical factor because it affected air travel across Europe. Results: Demographic characteristics and underlying disease rates were similar in the two groups. Mai 2010. Shortly afterward, the water level returned to normal and water temperature decreased. Meltwater started to emanate from the ice cap around 07:00 on 14 April and an eruption plume was observed in the early morning. Deformation was occurring at rates up to a centimetre a day since 4 March at various GPS sites installed within 12 km (7.5 mi) from the eruptive site. [18] However, during the night of 22 March, they reported some volcanic ash fall reaching the Fljótshlíð area (20 to 25 km (12 to 16 mi) north-west of the eruption's location)[19] and Hvolsvöllur town (40 kilometres (25 mi) north-west of the eruption location)[19] leaving vehicles with a fine, grey layer of volcanic ash. The first eruption phase ejected olivine basaltic andesite lava[11] several hundred metres into the air in what is known as an effusive eruption. Therefore, air traffic was grounded for several days. In early January 2010, the rate of deformation and the number of earthquakes began to increase. The last eruption of Eyjafjallajökull before the 2010 events was an extended event lasting 14 months from 1821 December to 1823 January. Eyjafjallajökull had shown similar signs of stirring in 1994 and 1999. 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