[183] Historically, the western portion of Georgia was known as Colchis while the eastern plateau was called Iberia. Turkey, Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan. Romans erected the statue of the Iberian King Pharsman after he demonstrated Georgian training methods during his visit to Rome; Learn how and when to remove this template message, GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, Georgian territory under Russian occupation, Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic, Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, Adapted Conventional Armed Forces in Europe Treaty, International recognition of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, Tensions between Georgia and Russia began escalating, ethnic cleansing against Georgians in South Ossetia, Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Role of Georgia in the War in Afghanistan (2001–14), Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, Administrative divisions of Georgia (country), International Union for Conservation of Nature, 2014 General Population Census Main Results, Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, secular and irreligious segments of society, Index of Georgia (country)-related articles, "საქართველოს მოსახლეობის საყოველთაო აღწერის საბოლოო შედეგები", "2014 General Population Census Main Results General Information — National Statistics Office of Georgia", "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019", "World Economic Outlook Database October 2019", "GINI index (World Bank estimate) - Georgia", "2014 General Population Census – Main Results", "The establishment of Soviet power in Transcaucasia: The case of Georgia 1921–1928", "The Law of Georgia on Occupied Territories (431-IIs)", "Now that's what you call a real vintage: professor unearths 8,000-year-old wine", "Evidence of ancient wine found in Georgia a vintage quaffed some 6,000 years BC", The Gold Mine of Sakdrisi and Earliest Mining and Metallurgy in the Transcausus and the Kura-Valley System, "Georgia iii. The incorporation of the Golden Fleece into the myth may have derived from the local practice of using fleeces to sift gold dust from rivers. The region's weather patterns are influenced both by dry Caspian air masses from the east and humid Black Sea air masses from the west. The goal was to import English speakers from across the world to ensure that all children in Georgia spoke English in four years and replace Russian as a second language. [204] The Georgian authorities expected that the current account deficit due to the embargo in 2007 would be financed by "higher foreign exchange proceeds generated by the large inflow of foreign direct investment" and an increase in tourist revenues. [165] Georgia has ratified the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in 2005. Find the perfect Georgia Country Map stock photos and editorial news pictures from Getty Images. In 2016, 2,714,773 tourists brought approximately US$2.16 billion to the country. Explore how Georgia counties vote in the Jan. 5, 2021 U.S. Senate runoffs, with live updates every five minutes. Lore-based theories were given by the traveller Jacques de Vitry, who explained the name's origin by the popularity of St. George amongst Georgians,[13] while traveller Jean Chardin thought that "Georgia" came from Greek γεωργός ("tiller of the land"). Map of Georgia Counties . The sons and grandsons of Ashot I established three separate branches, frequently struggling with each other and with neighboring rulers. The Cabinet is composed of ministers, headed by the Prime Minister, and appointed by the President. This page was last updated on November 9, 2020, All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2021 worldatlas.com, Countries With The Worst Education Systems, Yakutsk, Russia – The World’s Coldest City, 10 Countries Where Women Far Outnumber Men, 10 Of The Most Notorious Serial Killers In The World, The Most Famous Serial Killers In America And Their Twisted Crimes. Oct 7, 2017 - Explore Lak Lak Tours's board "MAPS OF GEORGIA COUNTRY" on Pinterest. Towards circa 778, Leon II (r.780–828) won his full independence with the help of the Khazars and was crowned as the king of Abkhazia. Georgia physical map. [148] The World Bank dubbed Georgia "the number one economic reformer in the world" because it has in one year improved from rank 112th to 18th in terms of ease of doing business. Elbrus) is located just over Georgia's northern border, and reaches 18,841 ft. (5,633m).All three peaks have been marked on the map. [286], Within Georgia, one of the most popularized styles of wrestling is the Kakhetian style. Things to Do in Georgia, Europe: See Tripadvisor's 275,214 traveler reviews and photos of Georgia tourist attractions. Search Lonely Planet. The executive branch of power is made up of the Cabinet of Georgia. For languages of the U.S. state of Georgia, see, Georgia after restoration of independence, Largest cities or towns in Georgia (country), Phoenix: The Peoples of the Hills: Ancient Ararat and Caucasus by Charles Burney, David Marshall Lang, Phoenix Press; New Ed edition (31 December 2001), Thomas Stöllner, Irina Gambaschidze (2014). In June 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union on an immediate course towards Caucasian oil fields and munitions factories. Georgia had five players in the NBA: Vladimir Stepania, Jake Tsakalidis, Nikoloz Tskitishvili, Tornike Shengelia and current Golden State Warriors center Zaza Pachulia. Other airports in the country are largely underdeveloped or lack scheduled traffic, although, as of late, efforts have been made to solve both these problems. [101] Abkhaz forces opened a second front on 9 August by attacking the Kodori Gorge, held by Georgia. [272] Georgian culture was influenced by Classical Greece, the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, the various Iranian empires (notably the Achaemenid, Parthian, Sassanian, Safavid and Qajar empires),[273][274][275][276] and later, from the 19th century, by the Russian Empire. Mingrelia, although a Russian protectorate since 1803, was not absorbed until 1867. The Likhi Range divides the country into eastern and western halves. Georgia Counties and County Seats [148] The mission and functions of the GAF are based on the Constitution of Georgia, Georgia's Law on Defense and National Military Strategy, and international agreements to which Georgia is signatory. At least 194 new coronavirus deaths and 7,946 new cases were reported in Georgia on Jan. 20. [96] According to Russian military expert Pavel Felgenhauer, the Ossetian provocation was aimed at triggering the Georgian response, which was needed as a pretext for premeditated Russian military invasion. The following are links to the international rankings of Georgia. It is located in the far south eastern region of the European continent. The Southern Georgia Volcanic Highland is a young and unstable geologic region with high seismic activity and has experienced some of the most significant earthquakes that have been recorded in Georgia. As of March 2012[update], Parliament was discussing further amendments to address these concerns. During the Civil War following the Russian Revolution in 1917, Georgia briefly became part of the Transcaucasian Federation[11] and then emerged as an independent republic before the Russian army invasion in 1921, which established a government of workers' and peasants' soviets. [76] The revolution was led by Mikheil Saakashvili, Zurab Zhvania and Nino Burjanadze, former members and leaders of Shevardnadze's ruling party. [citation needed], On 14 February 2005, the agreement on the appointment of Partnership for Peace (PfP) liaison officer between Georgia and NATO came into force, whereby a liaison officer for the South Caucasus was assigned to Georgia. There is also a Certified Specialist's Program that represents a single-level higher education program lasting from three to six years. Gamsakhurdia stoked Georgian nationalism and vowed to assert Tbilisi's authority over regions such as Abkhazia and South Ossetia that had been classified as autonomous oblasts under the Soviet Union. Out of the 2,100 glaciers that exist in the Caucasus today, approximately 30% are located within Georgia. [203] In addition, Russia increased the price of gas for Georgia. Georgia County Map - Find a map of Georgia, USA showing all the 159 counties and its county seats along with the capital city. The present day Georgian or Kartvelian nation is thought to have resulted from the fusion of aboriginal, autochthonous inhabitants with immigrants who moved into South Caucasus from the direction of Anatolia in remote antiquity. [115] In response to Russia's recognition, the Georgian government severed diplomatic relations with Russia. [citation needed], These events, along with accusations of Georgian involvement in the Second Chechen War,[78] resulted in a severe deterioration of relations with Russia, fuelled also by Russia's open assistance and support to the two secessionist areas. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day. [67], The 1918 Georgian–Armenian War, which erupted over parts of disputed provinces between Armenia and Georgia populated mostly by Armenians, ended because of British intervention. [211] In 2015, the average monthly income of a household was 1,022.3₾ (about $426). [27], After the Roman Republic completed its brief conquest of what is now Georgia in 66 BC, the area became a primary objective of what would eventually turn out to be over 700 years of protracted Irano–Roman geo-political rivalry and warfare. Georgia (Georgian: საქართველო, romanized: sakartvelo; IPA: [sɑkʰɑrtʰvɛlɔ] (listen)) is a transcontinental country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. [citation needed] [173], Georgia contains two official autonomous regions, of which one has declared independence. [253], The special status of the Georgian Orthodox Church is officially recognised in the Constitution of Georgia and the Concordat of 2002, although religious institutions are separate from the state, and every citizen has the right of religion. [citation needed], In 2005, President Mikheil Saakashvili fired the entire traffic police force (numbering around 30,000 police officers) of the Georgian National Police due to corruption. [178] Georgia considers the regions as occupied by Russia. [188], Eastern Georgia has a transitional climate from humid subtropical to continental. In 2004, the penetrated depth was increased on each of three expeditions, when a Ukrainian team crossed the 2,000-meter (6,562 ft) mark for the first time in the history of speleology. There were a number of other styles in the past that are not as widely used today. I can unsubscribe any time using the unsubscribe link at the end of all emails. [164], Human rights in Georgia are guaranteed by the country's constitution. Legislative authority is vested in the Parliament of Georgia. As the Ottomans advanced into the Caucasian territories of the crumbling Russian Empire, Georgia declared independence on 26 May 1918. Iranian elements in Georgian art and archeology", "Relations between Tehran and Moscow, 1797–2014", Ethnic tensions: War in the Caucasus is Stalin's legacy, "Georgian World War II hero's remains return home", "Georgia/Abchasia: Violations of the laws of war and Russia's role in the conflict", "Russia – The Ingush–Ossetian conflict in the Prigorodnyi region", "EurasiaNet Eurasia Insight – Georgia's Rose Revolution: Momentum and Consolidation", "Russia Hands Over Batumi Military Base to Georgia", Russia's retention of Gudauta base – An unfulfilled CFE treaty commitment, "Russia says UN Abkhazian refugee resolution counterproductive", "Countdown in the Caucasus: Seven days that brought Russia and Georgia to war", "Georgia calls on EU for independent inquiry into war", "Russia resurgent? The Greater Caucasus Mountain Range plays an important role in moderating Georgia's climate and protects the nation from the penetration of colder air masses from the north. [15][16] This term itself might have been established through the ancient Iranian appellation of the near-Caspian region, which was referred to as Gorgan ("land of the wolves").[15][17]. Neighboring large empires subsequently exploited the internal division of the weakened country, and beginning in the 16th century up to the late 18th century, Safavid Iran (and successive Iranian Afsharid and Qajar dynasties) and Ottoman Turkey subjugated the eastern and western regions of Georgia, respectively. [citation needed], In recent years Georgia has invested large amounts of money in the modernization of its transport networks. [162], The new Patruli force was first introduced in the summer of 2005 to replace the traffic police, a force which was accused of widespread corruption. Visit top-rated & must-see attractions. Georgian culture evolved over thousands of years from its foundations in the Iberian and Colchian civilizations. [22] The earliest evidence of wine to date has been found in Georgia, where 8,000-year old wine jars were uncovered. Heraclius, who had risen to prominence through the Iranian ranks, was awarded the crown of Kartli by Nader himself in 1744 for his loyal service to him. The Action Plan was formally approved at the EU–Georgia Cooperation Council session on 14 November 2006, in Brussels. [175] In addition, another territory not officially autonomous has also declared independence. [citation needed]. [51] Heraclius nevertheless stabilized Eastern Georgia to a degree in the ensuing period and was able to guarantee its autonomy throughout the Iranian Zand period. Georgia's decision to boost its presence in the coalition forces in Iraq was an important initiative. Success in Ajaria encouraged Saakashvili to intensify his efforts, but without success, in breakaway South Ossetia. The above map represents Georgia, a Transcaucassian country. [250] In the first half of the 4th century, Christianity was adopted as the state religion of Iberia (present-day Kartli, or eastern Georgia), following the missionary work of Saint Nino of Cappadocia. [note - the breakaway region of South Ossetia consists of the northern part of Shida Kartli, eastern slivers of the Imereti region and Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, and part of western Mtskheta-Mtianeti]. Nana Bolashvili, Andreas Dittmann, Lorenz King, Vazha Neidze (eds. Forests cover around 40% of Georgia's territory while the alpine/subalpine zone accounts for roughly around 10 percent of the land. [citation needed], Georgia has an ancient musical tradition, which is primarily known for its early development of polyphony. Georgia is a unitary parliamentary republic, with the government elected through a representative democracy. [249][n 1] 0.7 percent of those recorded in the 2014 census declared themselves to be adherents of other religions, 1.2 percent refused or did not state their religion and 0.5 percent declared no religion at all. [124], Georgia maintains good relations with its direct neighbours (Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Turkey) and is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization, the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Community of Democratic Choice, the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development[125] and the Asian Development Bank. [256], In addition to traditional religious organizations, Georgia retains secular and irreligious segments of society (0.5 percent),[257] as well as a significant portion of religiously affiliated individuals who do not actively practice their faith. Other examples of Georgian ecclesiastic architecture can be found outside Georgia: Bachkovo Monastery in Bulgaria (built in 1083 by the Georgian military commander Grigorii Bakuriani), Iviron monastery in Greece (built by Georgians in the 10th century), and the Monastery of the Cross in Jerusalem (built by Georgians in the 9th century). [181][182] The country lies between latitudes 41° and 44° N, and longitudes 40° and 47° E, with an area of 67,900 km2 (26,216 sq mi). [249][n 1] The Georgian Orthodox Church is one of the world's most ancient Christian Churches, and claims apostolic foundation by Saint Andrew. Macroeconomic Environment, "Georgian National Tourism Administration – Researches", "Russian Flight Ban Could Cost Georgia $300M, Experts Say", "Baku-Tbilisi-Kars Railway Line Officially Launched", "Kutaisi's airport: Georgia's opportunity", "ECMI – European Centre For Minority Issues Georgia", "Total population by regions and ethnicity", Georgia: Ethnic Russians Say, "There's No Place Like Home", "Immigrants by previous country of residence and usual place of residence", Russia: The Ingush–Ossetian Conflict in the Prigorodnyi Region, World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Uzbekistan: Meskhetian Turks, "Population by region, by native languages and fluently speak Georgian language", "Georgia Looks to Replace Russian with English", "Patriarchate of Georgia – Official web-site", "Memorandum to the U.S. Government on Religious Violence in the Republic of Georgia (Human Rights Watch August 2001)", "Centralized university entrance examinations", "Gross enrollment ratio, primary, both sexes", "New Tbilisi.Gov.Ge – თბილისის მერიის ოფიციალური ვებ გვერდი", "Niko Pirosmani – Short Biographical Information", "The Untold Story of How "Chakrulo" Ended Up in Space", "Internet Freedom – 65 Country Score Comparison", Association of Modern Scientific Investigation – (AMSI), Sovereign states and dependencies of Europe, autonomous country of the Kingdom of Denmark, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Georgia_(country)&oldid=1002164238, Georgian-speaking countries and territories, States and territories established in 1991, Articles containing Georgian-language text, Articles with Georgian-language sources (ka), Articles with dead external links from November 2010, Articles with dead external links from July 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from March 2012, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia pages semi-protected from banned users, Articles needing additional references from March 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2019, Wikipedia articles that are excessively detailed from February 2019, All articles that are excessively detailed, Wikipedia articles with style issues from February 2019, Articles containing potentially dated statements from March 2012, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2016, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2015, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2016, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2008, Pages using Sister project links with hidden wikidata, Pages using Sister project links with default search, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 January 2021, at 04:21. [239], The most widespread language group is the Kartvelian family, which includes Georgian, Svan, Mingrelian and Laz. The commission was tasked with coordinating and controlling the implementation of the Individual Partnership Action Plan. The country is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, and the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development. [39] She succeeded in neutralizing opposition and embarked on an energetic foreign policy aided by the downfall of the rival powers of the Seljuks and Byzantium. During World War II, almost 700,000 Georgians fought in the Red Army against the Germans. Train and Equip military assistance program, and the construction of the Baku–Tbilisi–Ceyhan pipeline have frequently strained Tbilisi's relations with Moscow. [156] As of 2015[update], 31 Georgian servicemen have died in Afghanistan,[157] most during the Helmand campaign, and 435 were wounded, including 35 amputees. [220], The Georgian railways represent an important transport artery for the Caucasus, as they make up the largest proportion of a route linking the Black and Caspian Seas. Georgia, country of Transcaucasia located at the eastern end of the Black Sea on the southern flanks of the Greater Caucasus Mountains. [219] Positioned in the Caucasus and on the coast of the Black Sea, Georgia is a key country through which energy imports to the European Union from neighbouring Azerbaijan pass. Georgia covers a territory of 69,700 square kilometres (26,911 sq mi), and its approximate population is about 3.718 million. [citation needed], The Krubera Cave is the deepest known cave in the world. As observed on the physical map of Georgia above, it is a very mountainous country, with the rugged Caucasus Mountains stretching across the northern third, and the Lesser Caucasus Mountains dominating the central and southern landscape.The country's highest point, (100% within its borders) is Mt. It was the site of the ancient kingdom of Iberia and of the medieval Bagratid dynasty. Georgia Country Google Maps has a variety pictures that partnered to find out the most recent pictures of Georgia Country Google Maps here, and moreover you can acquire the pictures through our best georgia country google maps collection. [88], South Ossetians conducted a campaign of ethnic cleansing against Georgians in South Ossetia,[107] destroying Georgian villages around Tskhinvali after the war had ended. For most of the following decade, post-Soviet Georgia suffered from civil conflicts, secessionist wars in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and economic crisis. The tree line generally ends at around 1,800 metres (5,906 ft) and the alpine zone takes over, which in most areas, extends up to an elevation of 3,000 metres (9,843 ft) above sea level. Georgia is positioned both in the Northern and Eastern hemispheres of the Earth. [262], Most of these institutions offer three levels of study: a Bachelor's Program (three to four years); a Master's Program (two years), and a Doctoral Program (three years). Abkhazia, S. Ossetia Formally Declared Occupied Territory. Since 2004 the Georgian Railways have been undergoing a rolling program of fleet-renewal and managerial restructuring which is aimed at making the service provided more efficient and comfortable for passengers. Local and international observers raised concerns about several amendments, including the vagueness of the criteria for determining political bribery and which individuals and organizations would be subject to the law. [234] At least 1 million emigrants from Georgia legally or illegally reside in Russia. Pyotr Bagration, one of the descendants of the abolished house of Bagrationi, would later join the Russian army and rise to be a prominent general in the Napoleonic wars. "[90][91], At around 19:00 on 7 August 2008, Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili announced a unilateral ceasefire and called for peace talks. This new process will be phased in over three years. Announces New Military Assistance Program for Georgia", "NDI Poll: Economy Still Top Concern for Georgians; Support for NATO and EU Stable", "Lavrov: If Georgia Joins NATO, Relations Will Be Spoiled", "Russian FM Lavrov supports resumption of flights to Georgia as Georgians 'realised consequences' of June 20", "Europe | Bush praises Georgian democracy", "Visas: Council confirms agreement on visa liberalisation for Georgia", "Visas: Council adopts regulation on visa liberalisation for Georgians", "MoD Releases Details on Georgian Troops Wounded in May 13 Helmand Attack", "Georgia deploying 750 soldiers to Afghanistan", "Why Georgia sends troops to Afghanistan", "Georgian Soldier Succumbs to Injuries Suffered in Afghanistan", "Firing of traffic police force stands as a symbol of hope in Georgia | McClatchy", "Georgia's National Police Corruption Project", Building security in the Republic of Georgia, "Remarks by President Saakashvili at the CIS Summit in Tbilisi", "Alternative report on the implementation by Georgia of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in the region of Kvemo Kartli – Tbilisi, 2008 – p. 58–59", "US, Britain, call for probe into May 26 events in Georgia", "Georgia: Police Used Excessive Force on Peaceful Protests | Human Rights Watch", "Tbilisi Mayor's Offers Protesters Alternative Venues for Rally", "Georgian Police Say 2 Killed in Protest Dispersal", "Audio, Video Recordings Implicate Protest Leaders to 'Plotting Violence, "Thousands gather for street protests against Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili", "Human Rights in the Occupied Territories of Georgia". [citation needed], Much of the natural habitat in the low-lying areas of western Georgia has disappeared during the past 100 years because of the agricultural development of the land and urbanization. The map center team plus provides the supplementary pictures of Political Map Of Georgia Country in high Definition and Best tone that can be downloaded by click upon the gallery below the Political Map Of Georgia Country picture. [citation needed] The military budget of Georgia for 2017 is 748₾ million, by 78₾ million more than in 2016. Georgian polyphony is based on three vocal parts, a unique tuning system based on perfect fifths, and a harmonic structure rich in parallel fifths and dissonances. km (26,900 sq mi). [231][n 1] The Georgian Jews are one of the oldest Jewish communities in the world. For example, the Khevsureti region of Georgia has three styles of wrestling. [114] Russia recognised Abkhazia and South Ossetia as separate republics on 26 August. Located along the banks of Kura River, Tbilisi is the capital and the largest city of Georgia. (1996). [citation needed], The overall region can be characterized as being made up of various, interconnected mountain ranges (largely of volcanic origin) and plateaus that do not exceed 3,400 meters (11,155 ft) in elevation. The coup was instigated by part of the National Guards and a paramilitary organization called "Mkhedrioni" ("horsemen"). Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded to the west by the Black Sea, to the north by Russia, to the east by Azerbaijan, and to the south by Armenia and Turkey. George V was the last great king of the unified Georgian state. [251][252] The Church gained autocephaly during the early Middle Ages; it was abolished during the Russian domination of the country, restored in 1917 and fully recognised by the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople in 1989. The head of the Bagrationi dynasty Ashot I of Iberia (r.813–826), who had migrated to the former southwestern territories of Iberia, came to rule over Tao-Klarjeti and restored the Principate of Iberia in 813. [120] The elections in October 2012 resulted in the victory for the opposition "Georgian Dream – Democratic Georgia" coalition, which President Saakashvili acknowledged on the following day. Saakashvili believed in 2008 that the country is "on the road to becoming a European democracy. A period of unrest ensued, which ended as Abkhazia and eastern Georgian states were unified under a single Georgian monarchy, ruled by King Bagrat III of Georgia (r. 975–1014), due largely to the diplomacy and conquests of his energetic foster-father David III of Tao (r. 966–1001). [68] The country's independence did not last long, being annexed by the Soviet Union in 1922.[66]. [148] Georgia's main imports are fuels, vehicles, machinery and parts, grain and other foods, pharmaceuticals. Georgia Map - Expore the Georgia country map, Georgia is a transcontinental country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia, located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. In 1936, the Transcaucasian Federation was dissolved and Georgia emerged as a Union Republic. The medieval Georgian Chronicles present an eponymous ancestor of the Kartvelians, Kartlos, a great-grandson of Japheth. Main exports are vehicles, ferro-alloys, fertilizers, nuts, scrap metal, gold, copper ores. I’ve put together a couple of different county-based map visualizations to show recent trends in cases. [22] In fact, early metallurgy started in Georgia during the 6th millennium BC, associated with the Shulaveri-Shomu culture. The Kingdom of Georgia collapsed into anarchy by 1466 and fragmented into three independent kingdoms and five semi-independent principalities. 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