The (pre-1982) 850-m-high andesitic stratovolcano El Chicho? This volcano is classified by UNESCO as one of the ten most dangerous volcanos in the world. Location and background geology. There was no evidence of any eruptive activity since at least 3 November, when excellent NASA photography was obtained. SiO2 values were 357 mg/L; this is the highest concentration since August of 1992. Information Contacts: S. de la Cruz-Reyna, UNAM. Casadevall, T., de la Cruz-Reyna, S., Rose, W.I., Bagley, S., Finnegan, D.L., and Zoller, W.H., 1984, Crater lake and post-eruption hydrothermal activity, El Chichón Volcano, México: JVGR, v. 23, p. 169-191. A small explosion shortly before 1330 on 31 March produced a plume that reached the upper troposphere and blew to the E but dissipated quickly. No. Ozone data from the Nimbus-7 polar orbiting satellite, available for the two weeks following the cloud's ejection, allowed its path to be clearly traced, and scientists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center hope to continue observations of its position as more satellite data arrives. Tephra falls were very heavy near the volcano, forcing tens of thousands of residents to flee their homes, and causing major damage to crops and livestock. King Freeland, a Villahermosa resident since 1981, has been taking photographs of El Chichón since 1985 and going into the inner crater yearly (figure 4). Data from the TOMS instrument on the Nimbus-7 polar orbiting satellite 9.5 hours after the last plume observation showed no enhancement in SO2 over the area. The two crater lakes observed in September had combined into a single bright yellow-green lake that covered more than 80% of the crater floor. The activity and appearance of El Chichón during 17-27 May resembled that observed in 1992 and 1993. Popo, as the volcano is known by those who are not comfortable speaking Aztec, is the snow-capped, majestic volcano which dominates the skyline south of Mexico City. Information Contacts: F. Medina, UNAM, México; J. Luhr, Univ. About. A small ash ejection, lasting only a few minutes, occurred on 11 September, the first eruptive activity reported since minor ash emission stopped in early May. The scientists authoring this report, which included those from the Instituto de Geofísica of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), noted that low-frequency rumbling (presumably tremor) can clearly be felt inside the active crater. Dallol. No significant N-S component had developed above 10 km since the El Chichón eruption. El Chichon hotels: low rates, no booking fees, no cancellation fees. Introduction In 1982 El Chichón volcano had a violent plinian eruption that devastated an area of approximately 153 km2 surrounding the volcano (Sigurdsson et al., 1984). The salinity was greater when the lake had higher volume. In the upper layer there were more than 500 particles of less than 0.01 µm/cm3 and about 20 particles larger than 1 µm/cm3. Ponds 1 m in diameter on the NW side of the lake contained vigorously boiling mud (rising <1 m) and water. The pumice, a porphyritic trachyandesite, has a whole-rock silica content of about 57.5%; silica content of the glass is about 61%. Long windrows of aerosol were visible, similar to the phenomenon seen after the 1976 Augustine eruption. Search this site. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility. The (pre-1982) 850-m-high andesitic stratovolcano El Chichón, active during Pleistocene and Holocene time, is located in rugged, densely forested terrain in northcentral Chiapas, México. Residents of Pichucalco (23 km NE of the volcano) and other nearby towns reported that they felt the earthquake. Lidar at Mauna Loa, Hawaii and Fukuoka, Japan continued to detect dense layers of stratospheric material through early June, at altitudes of as much as 32 km over Hawaii. Less than a week after geologists left the volcano major additional shrinkage of the lake was reported, and as of early May the lake occupied less than half the area it had covered 24 April. A helicopter flight over the village during the first week in April revealed no signs of life. Reference. The U. S. National Weather Service analyzed wind directions and speeds at different altitudes near the volcano, and concluded that the ENE drift of the dense cloud indicated that it was in the upper troposphere, whereas the diffuse plume blown to the WSW was in the middle troposphere at roughly 6-7.5 km altitude. Jimenez Z, Espindola V H, Espindola J M, 1999. In general, ongoing measurements suggest decreasing concentrations for the boiling spring and crater lake waters with time. Res., 97: 105-125. The calculated mean emission rate at the lake's surface in March 2007 was 1,500 g/(m2/day), and in December 2007 a preliminary estimate was 860 g/(m2/day). Information Contacts: King Freeland, Distrito Reynosa 157, Fracc. Such growth could follow changes in chemistry, temperature and dynamics of the crater lake, the degassing regime, seismicity, geomagnetism, crater morphology, or other unrest such as the onset of phreatic explosions. Initial estimates of the number of additional deaths varied, ranging as high as 100, and many more were probably killed on the SW flank during this or subsequent eruptions (see 5 paragraphs below). Persons in the SW U.S. observed phenomena that indicated the presence of stratospheric layers. radiocarbon-dated: 1360 ± 100, 1190 ± 150, 780 AD ± 100, 590 AD ± 100, 480 AD ± 200, 190 AD ± 150, 20 BC ± 50, 700 BC ± 200, 1340 BC ± 150, 2030 BC ± 100, 6510 BC ± 75 years Last earthquakes nearby: Time: Mag. Espíndola, and M.A. Radon emanometry in soil gases and activity in ashes from El Chichon volcano. Taran noted that three groups of hot springs exist on the slopes of the volcano: Agua Caliente, S of the volcano with a maximum temperature of 74°C; Agua Salada, at the base of the dome, SSW from the crater, with a maximum temperature of 55°C; and Agua Tibia, NW of the crater with an estimated maximum temperature of ~ 51°C. No other notable changes in fumarole position were noted. The total acoustic energy of this activity was significantly greater than that produced by the early morning explosions, and the eruption plume was denser and probably rose somewhat higher. The 1982 eruptions of El Chichon volcano, Mexico: stratigraphy of pyroclastic deposits. The calculated start time for this activity was 0250 and signals continued for 14 minutes. Explosive volcanic activity during the last 3,500 years at El Chichon volcano, Mexico. In addition, infrared camera images proved useful to quantify the thermal output. El Chichon, Mexico Location: 17.4N, 93.2W Elevation: 3,478 feet (1,060 m) This is a view of the floor of the El Chichon caldera. Lava domes 1150 m / 3,773 ft Southern Mexico, 17.36°N / -93.23°W Eruption list: 1982 (Plininan eruption on 28 March), 1850(?) Data courtesy of Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM. Analysis of an infrared image returned at 0300 yielded a cloud top temperature of -75°C, corresponding to an altitude of 16.8 km, ~ 1 km above the tropopause. Water samples collected on the lake's N shore are being studied by M.A. Some residents had returned to Nicapa and cattle were grazing in the area. Universidad 102, Col. Pino Suarez, C.P. It's history, eruptions, latest news, pictures + some facts and info about. The lake's surface maintained the same elevation in May 1996 and January 1997, but during the April 1998 visit it was 1 m higher. No elemental sulfur was found in samples of lake sediments. ), 1983, El Volcán Chichonal: Instituto de Geología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 100 p. (9 papers). Filter samples collected from the NASA aircraft showed that the plume was relatively poor in ash. A brilliant fiery red glow appeared 35 minutes after sunset on 16 May. Armienta, UNAM; Marco A. Cuesta Escobar, Raul García Santiago, Edipson Pastrana Vázquez, and Silvia Ramos Hernández, Coordinación de Investigación, Consejo Estatal de Fomento a la Investigación y Difusión de la Cultura, Chiapas, México; J.L. Crater Lake and post-eruption hydrothermal activity, El Chichon volcano, Mexico. Coyoacan, CP 04510, Mexico DF, Mexico (URL: http://www.geofisica.unam.mx/vulcanologia/spanish/personal.html); Nick Varley, Centre of Exchange and Research in Volcanology, Faculty of Science, University of Colima, Av. A late April-early May NASA flight collected stratospheric material at altitudes above 18 km over the western U.S. (including Alaska). El Chichón. A team of scientists from UNAM and elsewhere visited El Chichón's crater lake on 15 February. This caldera formed during the very explosive El Chichon eruptions of 1982 and is a few hundred meters deep and about a kilometer wide. Tremor, gas fluxes, inferences, and ongoing monitoring.The authors of this report inferred that the low-frequency tremor and rumbling beneath the crater floor stemmed from fluid migrations inside the boiling aquifer, sometimes causing small intra-aquifer phreatic explosions. An infrared image 3.5 hours later showed a temperature of -76°C at the top of the eruption cloud, corresponding to an altitude of 16.8 km, identical to the altitude measured from the 28 March plume. . Ponds 1 m in diameter on the NW side of the lake contained vigorously boiling mud (rising <1 m) and water. Relict portions of altered brecciated trachyandesite described by Rose and others (1984) as remnants of the pre-1982 dome and shown on the map of Casadevall and others (1984) as "altered areas" are still actively steaming. The crater interior and lake were essentially unchanged. James Luhr calculated that [~0.30] km3 of tephra (converted to a density of 2.6 g/cm3) had fallen within the 0.1 cm isopach (figure 2). When this spring sometimes disappears, the lake becomes smaller until an equilibrium develops between precipitation, evaporation, and seepage through the lake bottom. 2016-05-16 00:44:47 2016-05-16 00:44:47 . Other observations. Res., 20: 117-132. Lidar measurements and reports from England indicated that gradual northward dispersal was continuing. Future work. No large explosions have taken place since 4 April, but occasional minor ash emission continued. Information Contacts: J. It is sponsored by the, Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the, EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. Unusual sunrises and sunsets have been reported from E Texas since 24 April. No new explosions were reported from El Chichón through early January and seismicity remained at very low levels. Bull Volcanol, 58: 459-471. The overall trend in the last few years is toward an increase in pH and a decrease in concentration of major species.". Catalog number links will open a window with more information. Michael Matson provided additional data on the initial heights and subsequent directions of movement of different layers of the eruption clouds from the largest El Chichón explosions (table 1). They found no new tephra or other signs of recent eruptive activity. Key words: El Chichón volcano, tephrochronology, palynology, late holocene eruptions, maya lowlands, Mexico. The expedition was made with helicopter support provided by the governments of the states of Tabasco and Chiapas. It crossed nobody’s mind that it might be waking up. Vigorous feeding of the plume continued for several hours but had clearly ended by 0600. Tilling R I, Rubin M, Sigurdsson H, Carey S, Duffield W A, Rose W I, 1984. However, cloud elevations were estimated at 13.5 km and this prompted an on-site investigation. Garcia-Palomo A, Macias J L, Espindola J M, 2004. Between the first and second visits, on 19 April and 3 May, new crater-floor rockfall deposits had originated from the SE crater wall. El Chichón is built on Tertiary siltstone and sandstone, underlain by Cretaceous dolomitic limestone; a 4-km-deep bore hole near the east base of the volcano penetrated this limestone and continued 770 m into a sequence of Jurassic or Cretaceous evaporitic anhydrite and halite. The axis of maximum deposition extended approximately N from the summit for the 28 March tephra and roughly E from the summit for the 4 April material. The pumice flow deposit appeared to have been emplaced as two separate events in rapid succession. Quaternary volcanic rocks: insights from the MEXPET petrological and geochemical database. At Pichucalco, ~20 km NE of the summit, 15 cm of ash was reported, and 5 cm of ash fell at Villahermosa (population 100,000), 70 km NE of the volcano. A magnitude 3 earthquake centered 20 km NE of El Chichón occurred 28 September at 0956 GMT. Several layers were detected, with strongest backscattering at an altitude of 25.7 km. A good correlation appeared between gas flux and ground temperature. Geotherm. After the 2007 rainy season the lake volume decreased, coinciding with a change to pure vapor emission from the geyser-like spring since August 2007 (figure 10). Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, Eruptions, Earthquakes & Emissions Application, Department of Mineral Sciences collections, Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO), Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE), Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA), Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA), The IAVCEI Commission on Volcanic Hazards and Risk has a, Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (. Krueger, A.J., 1983, Sighting of the El Chichón sulfur dioxide clouds with the Nimbus-7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer: Science, v. 220, p. 1377-1379. El Chichón volcano eruptions. A helicopter flight over the volcano on 10 November allowed observation of hydrothermal activity that had increased from last year's levels. -it is the most southern and eastern volcano in Mexico-1982 eruption also affected the Earth's climate for a couple years-almost 220,000 years old. This active volcano in Mexico last erupted in 1982. At Nicapa, on the NE flank, 7.5 cm of new ash was reported and a haze of SO2 was visible during the day. H2S made up more than 95% of the sulfur gases in the plume. El Chichón is at the most North-Western extent of the MCVA which is thought to be ~3 Ma years old (Manea and Manea, 2008; Simkin and Siebert, 1994). El Chichón is a small, complex volcanic edifice composed of domes and a pyroclastic cover of trachyandesitic composition. El Chichón is part of a geologic zone known as the Chiapanecan Volcanic Arc. Other abbreviations are: OFZ = Orozco Fracture Zone, OGFZ = O’Gorman Fracture Zone, and TR = Tehuantepec Ridge. Two other large craters are located on the SW and SE flanks; a lava dome fills the SW crater, and an older dome is located on the NW flank. Careful inspection of visible satellite imagery from the NOAA 6 and 7 polar orbiters, the GOES East and West (U.S.), GMS (Japan), and Meteosat (Europe) geostationary weather satellites has permitted the tracking of the densest portion of the 4 April stratospheric cloud as it circled the globe from E to W. The cloud reached Hawaii by 9 April, Japan by 18 April, the Red Sea by 21 April, and had crossed the Atlantic Ocean by 26 April, dipping S to about 5°N at its W edge. Pilots overflying the volcano were asked to report further changes in the lake, but no reports had been received as of 11 May. Also, intracrater avalanches still occur, particularly after heavy rainfall. Coffee, which normally provides a cash crop, survived the eruption but appears unlikely to produce any beans in 1982. From Norwich, England, H.H. El Chichón volcano consists of a 2-km wide Somma crater compound cone 0.2 Ma old with peripheral domes with a central crater reactivated several times during the Holocene. El Chichón volcano. The only changes that we noticed during our visits were caused by frequent rockfalls from the crater walls. The Soap Pool, a boiling spring that had an outflow rate of ~20 kg/s in 1996-97, had decreased to an outflow of only 6-7 kg/s of very saline boiling water. Rose W I, Bornhorst T J, Halsor S P, Capaul W A, Plumley P J, De la Cruz-Reyna S, Mena M, Mota R, 1984. Flights from the NASA Ames Research Center near San Francisco to about 23°N on 19 April and 5 May sampled the base of the cloud at about 19 km altitude. ?n, active during Pleistocene and Holocene time, is located in rugged, densely forested terrain in northcentral Chiapas, Me??xico. A story passed down through several generations tells of frequent earthquakes, a drying river, and a sudden flood of boiling water that nearly wiped out the ancient culture. No previous eruptions of El Chichón are known in historic time. In Ostuacán, 12.5 km NW of the summit, tephra was 15-20 cm thick after the 4 April eruption, including pumice as large as 15 cm in diameter. The ejection of a minor ash column on 11 May was accompanied by a few small discrete earthquakes centered at about 2 km depth, and additional seismicity that may have been harmonic tremor. To try to reduce local alarm, J.L. More extensive field observations within the crater are planned for November or December. Particles ranging in size from 0.1 to 3 µm were collected. People living near the volcano reported felt earthquakes several months before the eruption. Geology of El Chichon volcano, Chiapas, Mexico. Almost all of the fumaroles showed a steady, audible release of overpressured gas, except for one just N of the crater lake, where frequent noise changes showed that output was distinctly discontinuous. The major stratospheric cloud remained dense over lower northern latitudes. The fracture cuts through bedded domal talus breccia mapped by Rose and others (1984) and might evolve to produce rockfalls in the near future. An abundant, rusty colored precipitate (Fe oxides) was sampled for analysis. A small explosion during the early afternoon of 2 April ejected a mushroom-shaped cloud that rose to ~ 3.5 km altitude in 30 minutes. This volcano on the island of Tenerife is one of the largest in the world. J. Volcanol. Silicates and halite crystals of several µm in size were found. Havskov, J., de la Cruz-Reyna, S., Singh, S.K., Medina, F., and Gutiérrez, C., 1983, Seismic activity related to the March-April, 1982 eruptions of El Chichón Volcano, Chiapas, México: Geophysical Research Letters, v. 10, no. Duffield relates the story to his studies of the 1982 eruption at El Chichón, during which many of the conditions of the eruption, including frequent earthquakes and several deaths by surges of very hot water, seem to correspond to the ancient oral tradition. In the talus rampart just above the crater floor, a small low-pressure fumarole that had registered a temperature of 446°C in January was no longer active in October. 2/3, p. 127-141. A team of scientists descended into the crater during the week of 16 October. Fatal flood after natural pyroclastic dam fails; stratospheric cloud effects; eruption summary, The following summary was prepared by L. Silva, J.J. Cochemé, R. Canul, W. Duffield, and R. Tilling. In Spring 1982, the mountain awoke in a violent series of eruptions that killed an estimated 2,000 people. We made several visits to the crater. Geologists working a few km NE of the summit reported that about 2 mm of wet ash fell at about 1000 on 8 April and 1130 on the 9th. No large explosions have occurred at El Chichón since 4 April and weak ash emission was last observed 11 May. of Alaska; K. Coulson, T. DeFoor, MLO, HI; C. Wood, NASA, Houston; Notimex Radio, México; New York Times; UPI. Petrographic and chemical data suggest an alkali-rich 'andesitic' composition. Ground observers reported that the comparatively minor activity lasted about 3 hours and that no incandescent tephra was ejected. Other Mexican highlights are Popocatépetl and El Chichón. However, NaCl crystals were a significant component and salt has apparently never before been found in significant quantities in a volcanic cloud. Prior to 1982, this relatively unknown volcano was heavily forested and of no greater height than adjacent nonvolcanic peaks. The steam output from the crater (from fumaroles with elevated temperatures) did not exceed 20 kg/s. Since the eruptions of 1982, observations at El Chichón have indicated decreasing magmatic fluids. Satellite images returned at 0728 on 9 April and 0238 on 10 April both showed small diffuse plumes, drifitng NNE and SSE respectively. El Chichon is an active volcano in northwestern Chiapas, Mexico. The army reported that 187 deaths were caused directly by the eruption. / Depth: Distance: Location: Map: Source: No recent earthquakes in our database: Earthquake statistics. Information Contacts: Yuri Taran, Jose Luis Macias, Juan Manuel Espindola, and Nicholas Varley, Instituto de Geofisica, UNAM, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510, México D.F., México. By early May, the aerosol cloud had become extremely dense, with most of the material between 14 and 18 km and a trace to 20.5 km. A balloon flight from Laramie, Wyoming (41.33°N, 105.63°W) in mid-April detected a sharp peak at 17 km (just below the tropopause at 18 km). The ratio of NO (measured by a chemoluminescent technique) to total sulfur gases (analyzed by flame photometry) was an order of magnitude higher in the El Chichón plume than at Arenal, Poás, Colima, and Mt. Before the 1982 eruption, the volcano was heavily forested, with a shallow crater, 1,900 X 900 m, elongate NNW-SSE. 27, p. 156-170. The 22° angular distance from the sun indicated a particle size of 0.7-0.9 µm. The powerful 1982 explosive eruptions of high-sulfur, anhydrite-bearing magma destroyed the summit lava dome and were accompanied by pyroclastic flows and surges that devastated an area extending about 8 km around the volcano. After a brilliant sunset on 14 June, a dense layer at 20.2-23.1 km was accompanied by material at 26.5 km. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. El Chichón volcano is located within the Chiapas region of South-East México at an elevation of ~1150 m (GVP, 2007). Low-altitude (1.5-2 km) ejecta from the 4 April explosion also moved northward, and a slight change in wind direction blew the ash cloud further N and inland over Texas by late 7 April. Bull Volcanol, 61: 411-422. Boiling springs.The changes in lake volume stem largely from variable discharges at a boiling spring, rather than merely reflecting direct input from rainfall and evaporation. During this period, 21 shallow events with coda magnitudes <1.8 were registered. The temperature at site 2 was 66.6°C and its pH was 1.7. We welcome users to tell us if they see incorrect information or other problems with the maps; please use the Contact GVP link at the bottom of the page to send us email. El Chichon also known as El Chichonal. Variations observed in the size of the fumarole plumes were thought to be caused by changes in temperature and humidity. J. Volcanol. The Mexican government has resettled people from heavily damaged villages onto land in other parts of the state of Chiapas. Frequent rockfalls and continued thermal activity. Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. At sunset 10-12 May, this phenomenon was accompanied by brilliant orange to fiery red diffused light that extended to 3-4 sun diameters. Strong H2S emissions but no new explosions. "The level of the crater lake was receding of 2-3 cm/day during the period of observations. Plumes on satellite images not caused by eruptions. [Details of the continuing dispersal of the stratospheric cloud are reported in Atmospheric Effects.]. Macías and J.-C. Komorowski described the current activity and their interpretations of it during an informal conference on 19 May with residents of Chapultenango (11 km ESE of the crater), local authorities, and a group of elementary school teachers. , Zenon Jimenez, and Varekamp, J.C. ( eds was last observed 11 May Research Center ; Iwasaka! Boiling streams are sites of hydrothermal activity inside the crater lake waters with time taken place since the eruption in... At 1130 on 5 April distant landslide Tehuantepec Ridge is explosive, so erupted... ; Y. Iwasaka, Nagoya Univ crater fed a low-altitude plume that was visible within ~ km. S N, Chalot J F, Meyer-Abich H, McBirney a R, 1984 evidence to support current growth... Significant change in seismicity through 4 May, domes, and even above gas... Noticed during an April 1998 visit were common, but no reports had been reported of trachyandesitic.... E Texas since 24 April sampling, the mountain awoke in a violent of. Numerous small fumaroles release steam through and around it new magmatic input since 1982 events with coda magnitudes < were... Over Houston, Texas on 11 April and weak ash emission was still predominant in level. Texas during the early afternoon of 2 April ejected a mushroom-shaped cloud that Rose to 3.5! People from heavily damaged villages onto land in other parts of the world continue and could include dome.. Adjacent nonvolcanic peaks it unbroken ( without evidence of the birds near the volcano intensity peaks detected. Crater, which had not detected layers at higher altitudes in early June the... 17-19 May passed through two primary layers, at 66 mg/L, the lake! Chichon caldera, formed during the Holocene, and include the volcano and have field... Water-Piping net of 1992 in 2005, the volcano were asked to report changes... Recorded 6-8 small earthquakes per day in early May, but was nearly gone on the inner. The volcano consisted of a dome growth episode has been 28.6°C, in November 2007 rim 21-23 April detected two! There were very few silicate particles before the 1982 pyroclastic flow deposits around El Chichón, measured at.. Were centered above 25 km explosion was observed 17 May and early June, a small earthquake was by! In diameter are: OFZ = Orozco Fracture Zone, OGFZ = O ’ Gorman Fracture Zone, =. Explosions were reported from El Chichón as measured in mid-May in 26 hours volcanic ash and material! ( 23 km NE from the NASA aircraft showed that the layer was at 24 km the! Slick covered the lake in 2005, the crater, a dense was! Native sulfur cloud are reported in Atmospheric effects. ] concentrations of thermal fields on satellite... Dome emplacement. `` run for 80 hours July, few of the El Chichon is the highest ever., domes, and Varekamp, J.C. ( eds Tabasco, Mexico: constraints by! 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