With a magnitude of 9.0 on the Richter scale, it was one of the most powerful earthquakes ever recorded. 375,900. Once dependent primarily on its rich agricultural environs, Christchurch expanded in the latter half of the 20th century to become New Zealand’s second most important industrial centre, aided by good transportation facilities, adequate supplies of artesian water, and plentiful, inexpensive hydroelectric power. Although its magnitude—about 6.3—was less than that of the 2010 quake, it caused greater devastation, in part because its epicentre was at a relatively shallow depth and was located close to the city and because it struck in the middle of the day. Earthquake) was New Zealand’s worst natural disaster - 185 people lost their lives and there was widespread destruction to buildings, infrastructure and land. The New Zealand defence forces have been called in to help move people out of the central business district.Fires were reported at the Canterbury Television (CTV… On Tuesday 22 February, 2011 at 12.51 pm the lives of hundreds of thousands of Cantabrians were changed forever. This was the second major earthquake to hit the city; the previous quake occurred on 4 September 2010 and registered at a 7.1 magnitude. Ultimately, more than 180 people were confirmed dead in the February quake. However, the violent magnitude 6.3 earthquake that devastated Christchurch on 22 February 2011 was caused by movement along a fault that does not appear to have broken the surface. Proclaimed a city in 1862 and made a borough in 1868, Christchurch was expanded in 1903, and it is now the most populous city on South Island and the second largest city (after Auckland) in New Zealand. The 2011 Christchurch earthquake was a 6.3 magnitude earthquake which struck the South Island of New Zealand at 12:51 pm on 22 February 2011 NZT. Christchurch Earthquake, 2011. A declared state of national emergency stayed in force from 23 February 2011 until 30 April 2011. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quake occurred at a relatively shallow 5 km (3 miles), which can help cause more damage. Updates? Online encyclopaedia. The September quake had occurred in the early hours of the morning with family generally close at hand. The devastation is so severe that some have even referred to the event as “New Zealand’s 9/11. In August 2013 work was completed on a temporary replacement for the Anglican cathedral. The original immigrants arrived on five ships in 1850–51. It has treated over 220 serious injuries so far, even though sometimes they were working by torchlight. The earthquake struck on March 11, 2011, at 2:46 pm local time. Though this earthquake had a lower magnitude (6.3), it has caused massive devastation and left much of the city in ruins, in part because its epicenter was closer to the city and because it struck in the middle of the day. More than 160 people were confirmed dead in the weeks after that quake, and dozens more remained … Christchurch was founded by the Canterbury Association, which was formed in 1848 largely through the efforts of John Robert Godley and planned to establish a model Church of England settlement. Earthquakes occur most often along geologic faults, narrow zones where rock masses move in relation to one another. shake map of the quake’s intensity. Social effects of Canterbury Earthquakes. ... Two men charged with stealing three emergency generators a day after the Christchurch earthquake face a month behind bars after a special Christchurch District Court sitting this morning to deal with criminal cases in the wake of the quake. In February 2011 Christchurch was struck by another, far more-damaging earthquake whose epicentre was located just a few miles from the city’s central business district. Rescue workers blocking access to a collapsed building in central Christchurch, New Zealand, after the earthquake that struck February 22, 2011. Most Cantabrians were away from their homes when the 6.3-magnitude earthquake struck at 12.51 p.m. on 22 February 2011. http://3news.co.nz/quake 3 News video footage from the 2011Christchurch Earthquake, New Zealand. This earthquake produced a visible rent across the landscape that allowed scientists to directly measure the movement of the longest fault segment, the Greendale Fault. In the weeks and months that followed, after the damage had been surveyed, it was determined that thousands of buildings in the city would have to be demolished and that some areas might have to be abandoned altogether because the quake had rendered the land dangerously unstable. 2010-2011 Christchurch earthquakes is currently estimated to be in the range between 25 and 30 billion NZ dollars (or 15% to 18% of New Zealand’s GDP). With an estimated 10,000 houses requiring demolition and over 100,000 damaged, plans were developed for moderate-term temporary housing. Other notable institutions are the botanical gardens, the planetarium, Canterbury Museum, and Yaldhurst Museum of Transport and Science, as well as several galleries, including the Christchurch Art Gallery and the Centre of Contemporary Art. The map shows the seismicity in the vicinity of Christchurch, New Zealand following the September 3, 2010, M7.0, Darfield earthquake (yellow circles) and the February 21, 2011, M6.3, Christchurch earthquake (orange circles). After each major earthquake, comprehensive field investigations and inspections were conducted Geologic instability in the region continued for months, and aftershocks—including one estimated at magnitude 6.0—caused additional property damage and some injuries but no fatalities. This was the first time ... Be on the look out for the Britannica for Parents newsletter to deliver insightful facts for … Economic Effects of the Canterbury Earthquakes. Pop. Christchurch Hospital was evacuated due to damage in some areas, but soon reopened to treat the injured. The epicenter was located about 80 miles (130 kilometers) east of the city of Sendai, which is in Miyagi prefecture. 2011 Christchurch Earthquake Day IV. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Christchurch and its surrounding region were struck by a strong earthquake on September 4, 2010—about magnitude 7, centred approximately 20 miles (30 km) west of the city. Gillian Needham took this iconic photo from her home in Cashmere minutes after the 22 February 2011 earthquake struck Christchurch. The June 2011 Christchurch earthquake was a shallow magnitude 6.0 M w earthquake that occurred on 13 June 2011 at 14:20 NZST. The epicentres of each of these events, Data from GNS Science, New Zealand. (2006) 360,768; (2012 est.) Among the structures slated for demolition was the city’s venerable Victorian-era Anglican cathedral. The world has been mobilizing to send aid to New Zealand, whose first responders have been overwhelmed by the quake. Rescue workers block access to a collapsed building in central Christchurch, New Zealand, after the earthquake that struck on February 22, 2011. (This is 23:51 21 February UTC). It was the middle of a working day and many people were at school or work, having lunch or running errands. Prime TV documentary on the Christchurch earthquake. Although its magnitude—about 6.3—was less than that of the 2010 quake, it caused greater devastation, in part because its epicentre was at a relatively shallow depth and was located close to the city and because it struck in the middle of the day. The national Earthquake Memorial is the Crown's official memorial for those killed or seriously injured in the 22 February 2011 Christchurch earthquake. ... Last September's 7.1-magnitude earthquake was 30 miles west of Christchurch. The earthquake caused widespread damage across Christchurch, killing 185 peoplein the nation's fifth-deadliest disaster. Click … To its traditional meat-freezing works and woolen and agricultural-implement production have been added the manufacture of clothing, carpets, rubber, wood and cork goods, transportation equipment, tires, soap, fertilizers, glass, footwear, and flour. The port’s chief exports include coal, wool, meat, dairy products, and wheat; chief imports are petroleum products, fertilizers, iron, and steel. Because much of the city’s land is devoted to parks, public gardens, and other recreation areas, Christchurch has earned the nickname “Garden City of the Plains.” One of the nation’s principal educational centres, it has Lincoln University (1990; originally established in 1878 as a constituent agricultural college of the University of Canterbury), Christ’s College, and the University of Canterbury (1873). Their settlement, known as Canterbury, was renamed for Christ Church, Oxford, the college Godley had attended. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Four days after a 6.3-magnitude earthquake struck near Christchurch, New Zealand, rescue crews from seven nations are on the ground, still hopeful they may find survivors. Christchurch, city, Canterbury regional council, eastern South Island, New Zealand, on the Avon River. According to the New Zealand Herald, “Police say more than 100 people may have been lost in Christchurch’s quake-ravaged Canterbury TV building, which they say is ‘unsurvivable’.” In addition, some 80% of the residents do not have access to water. Omissions? Woman surveying the damage to her home near Christchurch, close to the epicentre of the earthquake that struck New Zealand's South Island on Sept. 4, 2010. Earthquake, any sudden shaking of the ground caused by the passage of seismic waves through Earth’s rocks. Corrections? Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Panoramic view of Christchurch and Lyttelton Harbour, New Zealand. This manuscript presents an overview of Rescue workers blocking access to a collapsed building in central Christchurch, New Zealand, after the earthquake that struck February 22, 2011. © 2006-2014 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Britannica.com | Privacy Policy | Terms of Use/Legal Notices | Blog Archive | Contact Us, In case you're mulling the relative ranking of. In addition to aid organizations in your country, here are some ways that you can help the victims of the earthquake. For a haunting gallery of pictures, the New Zealand Herald has put together a “then and now” comparing photos of structures before and after the quake. ... after the earthquake that struck on February 22, 2011. World Book Online. M ark Mitchell—New Zealand Herald/AP Two large tremors struck the Christchurch m etropolitan area during the early afternoon on June 13, 2011. It was centred at a depth of 7 km (4.3 mi), about 5 km (3 mi) south-east of Christchurch, which had previously been devastated by a magnitude 6.2 M W earthquake in February 2011. It struck the Canterbury region of the island and caused a lot of damage and many deaths in Christchurch, New Zealand's second largest city.. Tue 22 Feb 2011 08.18 EST. Christchurch earthquakes of 2010–11, also called Canterbury earthquakes, [Christchurch earthquakes of 2010–2011: woman surveying the damage to her home near Christchurch [Credit: Greg Bowker—New Zealand Herald/AP]] series of tremors that occurred within and near the city of Christchurch, New Zealand, and the Canterbury Plains region from early September 2010 to late February 2011. On February 22, just five months after Christchurch, known as the “Garden City of the Plains” for its extensive land devoted to parks, public gardens, and other recreation areas and located on the South Island of New Zealand, was hit with a strong earthquake of about magnitude 7 centered approximately 20 miles west of the city, the city was once again rocked with a major quake. Christchurch earthquakes of 2010–11 | New Zealand | Britannica The worst happened in February 2011, when a 6.3-magnitude earthquake ripped through Christchurch in the middle of the day – toppling buildings onto … Learn more about the causes and effects of earthquakes in this article. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Time-lapse visualisation of the December 23 2011 earthquake and its aftershocks in Christchurch and Canterbury, New Zealand. Buildings have collapsed around Cathedral Square in downtown Christchurch. Part of a road between Lyttelton and Sumner is damaged by Tuesday's earthquake on the outskirts of Christchurch, New Zealand, Thursday, Feb. 24, 2011. Encyclopedia, dictionary and atlas. Prime TV documentary on the Christchurch earthquake. After the September 2010 Darfield earthquake I posted Malcolm Teesdale's now famous image of distorted railway track. In February 2011 Christchurch was struck by another, more devastating earthquake. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The Christchurch Earthquake: New Zealand’s “Darkest Day” (Photo), devastating New Zealand earthquake was limited, Ratio and Proportional Reasoning using MiC, Inside the Classroom with Pathways: Science. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. On February 22, just five months after Christchurch, known as the “Garden City of the Plains” for its extensive land devoted to parks, public gardens, and other recreation areas and located on the South Island of New Zealand, was hit with a strong earthquake of about magnitude 7 centered approximately 20 miles west of the city, the city was once again rocked with a major quake. Although there were few serious injuries and no fatalities, the quake and its aftershocks (some of them severe) destroyed hundreds of buildings in the city and damaged railways, roads, and other infrastructure. It was the last and most successful colonizing project inspired by Edward Gibbon Wakefield and his New Zealand Company. The Departm… The Christchurch earthquake, February 2011. David Wall/Alamy. As Britannica’s article on earthquakes relates: About 50,000 earthquakes large enough to be noticed without the aid of instruments occur annually over the entire Earth. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. It was about 5 km underground. Several aftershocks were reported, some registering at a 5.6 magnitude. The Transitional Cathedral, made of durable earthquake-resistant cardboard, was designed to stand for decades, or until a permanent replacement for the original structure could be built. It shows the city's CBD enveloped in a cloud of dust. Of these, approximately 100 are of sufficient size to produce substantial damage if their centres are near areas of habitation. The earthquake struck the Canterburyregion in New Zealand's South Islandand was centred 6.7 kilometres (4.2 mi) south-east of the centre of Christchurch,New Zealand's second-most populous city. An interview with Dr Chris Leathart, GP, Christchurch and a member of the bpac nz Clinical Advisory Group. Despite the destruction, some sources have said that “[t]hanks to modern building codes and sound disaster insurance policies, the damage from Tuesday’s devastating New Zealand earthquake was limited.”. The quake killed 185 people and devastated the city centre. ... Christchurch Earthquake Kills 185. Talk about a class act. The spire of ChristChurch Cathedral has completely collapsed. The March 11, 2011, earthquake was the strongest to strike the region since the beginning of record keeping in the late 19th century, and it is considered one of the most powerful earthquakes … The 22 February 2011, M w 6.2-6.3 Christchurch earthquake is the most costly earthquake to affect New Zealand, causing 181 fatalities and severely damaging thousands of residential and commercial buildings, and most of the city lifelines and infrastructure. Christchurch is also served by an international airport and the South Island Main Trunk Railway. Less than six months later, on February 22, 2011, another quake struck Christchurch. On 22 February 2011, a 6.3 magnitude earthquake struck Christchurch shortly before 12:50pm at a shallow depth of four kilometres. In September 2010 a strong earthquake struck Christchurch and its surrounding region; although there were no fatalities, the city suffered extensive damage to buildings and infrastructure. Approximately 450 fully serviced mobile homes would be located on sites across the city including Canterbury Agricultural Park and Riccarton Racecourse. Prime Minister John Key has said that “we may well be witnessing New Zealand’s darkest day.” While the death toll at the time of this writing was at 75 confirmed, it was certain to grow as several hundred people were missing. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Intensity map by the U.S. Geologic Survey. This post provides an update in light of the Christchurch earthquake, including an explanation as to why this type of deformation can occur in tracks. Less than six months later, on February 22, 2011, another quake struck Christchurch. A number of contributors to QuakeStories who were in the CBD at the time of the earthquake saw the dust cloud and knew that it meant buildings would be down: The following map is the U.S.G.S. Very great earthquakes occur on average about once per year. About 100 people were treated at hospital with earthquake … The city centre sustained significant damage and was evacuated. The memorial was envisaged as a place of local, national and international significance where individuals could reflect and large groups can gather. Encyclopedia Britannica Britannica School. As the earthquake struck at a busy time and at the town centre, a busy place more, damage and casualties happened then the previous 7.1 magnitude earthquake in 2010 than the 6.3 magnitude earthquake in 2011, more people were killed, a total 185 deaths and 2 … Time-lapse visualisation of the February 22 2011 earthquake and its aftershocks in Christchurch and Canterbury, New Zealand. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/place/Christchurch-New-Zealand, The Official Site of Christchurch City Council, Official Site of Christchurch, England, United Kingdom, Christchurch - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). This time it was often colleagues, classmates or complete strangers who comforted and help… Up to 50,000 residents moved permanently to other locations in New Zealand or to Australia. The city’s port is Lyttelton, a natural deepwater anchorage (7 miles [11 km] southeast) to which it is linked by rail and road tunnels through the Port Hills. 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